Construction Management

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Construction Management GySgt Fry

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PROJECT PLANNING AND SCHEDULING The purpose of this lesson is to provide you with the knowledge to plan and supervise activities for construction projects.

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CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM) CPM is a form of analysis that is used for planning, scheduling, and controlling construction activities for a project from start to finish. The CPM requires a formal, detailed listing of all work related activities that make up the project. Also referred to as: Construction Management Project Planning and Scheduling Critical Path Analysis

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PRELIMINARY PLANNING Preliminary planning is a quick overall picture of the project and the capacity of the unit to accomplish it. Serves as a guide for detailed planning. Includes site recon, preliminary material and equipment estimates, and procurement of critical items, identify work activities.

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DETAILED PLANNING Develops an accurate estimation of work activities, materials, man-hours, and equipment requirements needed from start to finish. Detailed planning includes: Reviewing project specifications and drawings. Detailed estimates of resources,(i.e. equip. hours). Scheduling work activities. Procurement of materials. Submitted in the form of a Gantt chart, Pert chart, Activity-on-the-Arrow logic diagram, or Activity-on-the-Node logic diagram.

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Job Directive Format The job directive is the tasking of a unit to perform construction tasks, and draw needed materials to complete the project assigned. Job directives vary in form and content. They are issued in one of two ways: Verbally for simple projects. Written for more complex projects.

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Stages of Detail Job directives can be in any one of three stages of detail: Contain detailed plans and specifications. The more stable the conditions are, the more detailed the job directive becomes. May simply refer to standardized drawings, or automated software programs already published. May require preparation of complete plans and project specifications to be approved by higher headquarters.

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Job Directive Information Mission: Exact assignment with all necessary details. Location: May be given, or left to the unit to select. Time: Starting time and/or required completion date. Manpower: Additional manpower that is available. Equipment: Additional equipment that is available.

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Job Directive Information Equipment: Any additional equipment available with especial conditions. Materials: Source of and authority to request materials. Priorities: Single priority for the whole project, or separate priorities for various portions of the project. Reports: Any required reports. (i.e. Daily or Weekly status report) Special Instructions: Any additional information pertaining to the job that is requested.

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Questions In what two forms may a job directive be issued? Verbally or in writing In Military construction, the planning process is divided into what two stages? Preliminary planning and detailed planning

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ACTIVITY LISTS (Brainstorming) An activities (task) list is a complete listing of all required work activities that must be performed from start to finish. An activity list can be brief, or as detailed as need be. The guiding factor to how much detail that is required is dictated by size and complexity of the project. An activity list must be developed mentally and on paper to determine actual activities and their interrelationships to each other. The most difficult step is your ability to think logically, and make a mental picture of the project in your mind. Brainstorming is needed with the assistance of the 1349, 1371 and 1361 Chief's, and the Project Officer.

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Activities “Topo” project site Establish road grades Lay gravel Set road alignments Order gravel Place concrete forms Clear roadway Clear pad site Prefabricate forms Create project drawings Layout pad batterboards Excavate pad footings Pour concrete Cure concrete Check pad elevations Check Road grades Remove forms Perform “As-built” ROUGH ACTIVITIES LISTING

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Sequencing Activities After you have developed your rough activity list in no specific order, you must now put the activities into a "logical" sequence to be performed. The finished activity list is broken down as follows: Activity Number Column Activity Column "Immediately Proceeded By" (IPB) Column

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Types of Activities There are five types of activities associated with the development of a finished activities list. Keeping these activities in mind will help you in your logical thinking to develop the activity list on paper. Starting activities. (beginning activity) Preceding activities. (previous activity) Concurring activities. (occurring at the same time) Succeeding activities. (following activity) Lagging activities. (slow or lingering activities)

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Sample Finished Activities List Activity Number Activity IPB 5 "Topo" project site None 10 Create project drawings 5 15 Order gravel None 20 Prefabricate forms None 25 Clear roadway 10 30 Set road alignments 25 35 Establish road grades 30 40 Check road grades 35 45 Lay gravel 15,40 50 Clear pad site 10 55 Layout pad batterboards 50 60 Excavate pad footings 55 65 Check pad elevations 60 70 Place concrete forms 20,65 75 Pour concrete 70 80 Cure concrete 75 85 Remove forms 80 90 Perform "as-built" 45,85

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Questions What is the process called to develop your activities list? Brainstorming What are the five types of activities that are kept in mind when developing a finish activity list? Starting, proceeding, Succeeding, concurring, and lagging activities.

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PLANNING DIAGRAMS The most important part of the CPM is the planning diagram. The planning diagram graphically shows the interrelationship between project activities. It provides a visual blueprint of the work activities that must be performed during construction. There are four types of diagrams that can be created. Each type of diagram serves a specific purpose.

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GANTT CHART Also known as a bar chart. Gantt charts are "time" oriented. Activities are graphically shown on a calendar time scale, used primarily for small projects. Bars show an activities duration in its entirety, regardless of its dependency on other activities. Effortless to construct, and are brief in format.

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GANTT CHART DISADVANTAGES Does not give you the ability to visualize the exact progress of the project. Anticipate delays or problems soon enough to correct them. Does not show detailed sequence of activities. Does not show "critical activities". Does not show precise effect of a delay or failure to complete an activity on time.

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PERT CHART DIAGRAM The Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) addresses probability, and is "event" oriented. This type of logic diagram is used primarily for research and development projects.

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Activity-On-The-Arrow Format (CPM) More complex in its creation. Tendency to lead to confusion when trying to interpret it. Least desirable format to use because of these factors.

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Activity-On-The-Node Format (CPM) Eliminates confusion, and allows you to adjust for problems that may arise during the construction of the project. AON format is "activity" oriented. This is the primary format used for planning military construction, and especially used for large projects.

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Activity-On-The-Node Uses: Construction planning. Maintenance planning. Project Design. Military combat task planning. Logistics planning.

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AON Advantages Reduces risk of overlooking essential tasks. Provides a blueprint for long-range planning. Shows activity interrelationships. Focuses attention on critical activities. Allows you to make timely decisions. Allows you to manage manpower, material, and equipmentresources more effectively.

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AON Disadvantages The AON format does not solve engineering problems that may occur. Does not make planning decisions for you. Does not provide anything substantial to the actual construction of the project itself.

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LOGIC DIAGRAMS ELEMENTS After the activity relationships are identified, they are applied to a logic diagram. The standard format for a logic diagram is the "Activity-on-the-Node". The four basic elements are : Start Nodes. Activity Nodes. Finish Nodes. Precedence Arrows.

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ACTIVITY NODE

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PRECEDENCE ARROWS

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START AND FINISH NODES

QUESTIONS : 

QUESTIONS What type of diagram is event oriented? What type of diagram is time oriented? What type of diagram is activity oriented?

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LOGIC DIAGRAMS Shown as a Critical Path Method (CPM) logic diagram. Shows accurate, timely, and easily understood picture of the whole project. Easier to plan, schedule, and manage the sequence of required work activities. Graphically shows the interrelationship of each work activity as they relate to the completion of the whole project.

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CPM DIAGRAM LOGIC RULES Which activities start at the beginning of the project? (Starting) Which activities must be finished before the start of another? (Preceding) Which activities can start or finish at the same time as another? (Concurring) Which activities cannot begin until another is finished? (Succeeding) Which activities may start when a portion of another activity is complete? (Lagging)

LOGIC DIAGRAM DEMONSTRATION : 

LOGIC DIAGRAM DEMONSTRATION

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Questions What logic rules are used to create a logic diagram? Starting, proceeding, succeeding, concurring, and lagging activities. What type of planning diagram is “event” oriented? Pert chart.

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Questions What type of planning diagram is “time” oriented? Gantt chart What type of planning diagram is “activity” oriented? AON and AOA diagrams.

PRACTICAL EXERCISE : 

PRACTICAL EXERCISE

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ACTIVITY ESTIMATES Estimating each activities required resources and duration times. Estimated resources are: Materials. Personnel. Equipment. Man-hours. Equipment-hours. RESOURCE ESTIMATES

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MATERIAL ESTIMATES Work Items. Materials. Quantities. Waste Factors. Total Material Requirements. Bills of Materials.

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EQUIPMENT/PERSONNEL ESTIMATES Work Items. (Activities) Material Quantities. (Units of work) Work Rate. (Man-hour Tables) Standard Work Effort (Labor). (Quantity x Work Rate) Efficiency Factor. Represented as a Percentage) Troop Effort (Total Labor Hours). (Standard Effort / Efficiency) Duration (Hours, Days, Weeks, or Months). (Troop Effort / Crew Size)

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EARLY/LATE EVENT TIMES After all duration's have been computed, you are now able to calculate each activities Early and Late event times. (Forward Pass and Backward Pass) Early Start (ES): The earliest time a activity can logically start. Early Finish (EF): The earliest an activity can finish without delaying follow on activities. (ES + Duration) Late Finish (LF): The latest an activity can finish without delaying the entire project. Late Start (LS): The latest time an activity can start without delaying the entire project. (LF - Duration)

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CRITICAL PATH & CRITICAL ACTIVITIES After completing the event times, you can determine the "critical path" of the project and all of the "critical activities" by simple observation using the following guidelines: The ES for an activity is the same as its LS. The EF for an activity is the same as its LF.

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Activity Number Activity IPB Duration 5 “Topo” project site None 2 days 10 Create project drawings 5 2 days 15 Order gravel None 6 days 20 Prefabricate forms None 1 day 25 Clear roadway 10 2 days 30 Set road alignments 25 1 day 35 Establish road grades 30 1 day 40 Check road grades 35 2 days 45 Lay gravel 15,40 2 days 50 Clear pad site 10 1 day 55 Layout pad batterboards 50 1 day 60 Excavate pad footings 55 2 days 65 Check pad elevations 60 1 day 70 Place concrete forms 20,65 1 day 75 Pour concrete 70 1 day 80 Cure concrete 75 6 days 85 Remove forms 80 1 day 90 Perform “As-built” 45,85 2 days ACTIVITY LIST WITH ESTIMATED DURATION'S

DEMONSTRATION : 

DEMONSTRATION S 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 F 2 2 6 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 6 1 2 0 0 0 2 4 4 4 6 6 7 7 8 8 10 5 5 6 6 8 8 9 6 10 12 1 9 10 10 11 11 17 17 18 18 20 20 20 18 18 18 17 17 11 11 10 10 9 9 8 8 6 6 5 5 4 16 16 16 10 9 8 14 14 13 13 12 10 4 2 2 0 2 12 EARLY/LATE EVENT TIMESDEMONSTRATION

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Questions What type of resources must be estimated for each activity? Material, personnel, equipment quantities, man hours and equipment hours. What effect does increasing equipment quantities have on the duration of an Activity? It decreases it’s duration time.

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Questions What do we call the process use to calculate the early event times for a project? Forward pass. What do we call the process use to calculate the late event times for a project? Backward pass.

PRACTICAL EXERCISES : 

PRACTICAL EXERCISES Complete worksheets 3 and 4 on pg 24 and 25 in your student outline.

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EARLY START SCHEDULES An early start schedule, when joined with the logic diagram, graphically shows all of the planning information that is needed to manage the construction project from start to finish. Any activity not on the "Critical Path" will contain some float. Float is any extra time that is available to complete an activity beyond its actual duration, without effecting the entire project.

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EARLY START SCHEDULE DEMO Worksheet 5 pg 26 in student outline

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FLOAT Total Float (TF): The entire amount of time that an activity can be delayed without delaying the entire project completion time. TF = LS - ES or LF - EF. Interfering Float (IF): Time that is available to delay an activity without delaying the projects entire completion time, but may delay the start of one or more non-critical activities. IF = LF -ES of following activity. (Use the smallest ES time) Free Float (FF): Time that is available to delay an activity without delaying the start of any other activity, or the entire projects completion time. FF = TF - IF

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FLOAT ALL FINISHING ACTIVITIES WILL CONTAIN ONLY FREE FLOAT NO CALCULATIONS NEEDED Free Float (FF): Time that is available to delay an activity without delaying the start of any other activity, or the entire projects completion time.

EARLY START SCHEDULEDEMONSTRATION : 

EARLY START SCHEDULEDEMONSTRATION

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RESOURCE ABBREVIATIONS SQUAD = SQ 5-TON = 5T TRAM = TR SCRAPER = SC DOZER = DZ GRADER = GD SEE TRAC = ST EXCAVATOR = EX COMPACTOR = CP SHEEPS FOOT = SF SURVEY CREW = S HUMMER = HV DRAFTSMAN = D

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S 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 F 6 2 6 2 1 6 1 6 0 0 0 EARLY START SCHEDULEDEMONSTRATION 2 2 4 6 6 7 7 13 6 6 7 7 13 13 13 13 7 7 6 6 6 0 4 4 2 7 7 6 6 0 TF = 2-0=2 IF =4-2=2 FF=2-2=0 TF =4-2=2 IF =6-6=0 FF= 2-0=2 5(30) 10(20) 15(25) 20(30) 25(35) 30(40) 35(F) 40(F) 4/5T 4/5T 4/4T 4/5T 4/5T 4/5T 2/TR 2/TR X X 2/SQ 2/SQ 2/SQ 2/SQ 2/SQ 2/SQ 2/CP 2/CP 1/SC 3/GR 2/SQ 2/SQ 2/SQ 2/SQ 2/SQ 2/SQ 2/5T 2/5T 2/5T 2/5T 2/5T 2/5T TOTALS 5 TON 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 TRAM 2 2 SQUAD 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 COMPACTORS 2 2 SURVEY CREW 1 GRADER 3

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Questions What is float? Is any extra time that is available to complete an activity beyond its actual duration without affecting the entire project. What is interfering float? Time that is available to delay an activity without delaying the projects entire completion time, but may delay the start of one or more non-critical activities.

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Questions What is free float? Is any Time that is available to delay an activity without delaying the start of any other activity, or the entire projects completion time.

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You have now been given all the tools necessary to use construction management to your advantage to better control how your projects are ran.