Slide 1: Construction Management GySgt Fry Slide 2: PROJECT PLANNING AND SCHEDULING The purpose of this lesson is to provide you with the knowledge to plan and supervise activities for construction projects. Slide 3: CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM) CPM is a form of analysis that is used for planning, scheduling, and controlling construction activities for a project from start to finish.
The CPM requires a formal, detailed listing of all work related activities that make up the project.
Also referred to as:
Project Planning and Scheduling
Critical Path Analysis Slide 4: PRELIMINARY PLANNING Preliminary planning is a quick overall picture of the project and the capacity of the unit to accomplish it.
Serves as a guide for detailed planning.
Includes site recon, preliminary material and equipment estimates, and procurement of critical items, identify work activities. Slide 5: DETAILED PLANNING Develops an accurate estimation of work activities, materials, man-hours, and equipment requirements needed from start to finish.
Detailed planning includes:
Reviewing project specifications and drawings.
Detailed estimates of resources,(i.e. equip. hours).
Scheduling work activities.
Procurement of materials.
Submitted in the form of a Gantt chart, Pert chart, Activity-on-the-Arrow logic diagram, or Activity-on-the-Node logic diagram. Slide 6: Job Directive Format The job directive is the tasking of a unit to perform construction tasks, and draw needed materials to complete the project assigned.
Job directives vary in form and content. They are issued in one of two ways:
Verbally for simple projects.
Written for more complex projects. Slide 7: Stages of Detail Job directives can be in any one of three stages of detail:
Contain detailed plans and specifications. The more stable the conditions are, the more detailed the job directive becomes.
May simply refer to standardized drawings, or automated software programs already published.
May require preparation of complete plans and project specifications to be approved by higher headquarters. Slide 8: Job Directive Information Mission: Exact assignment with all necessary details.
Location: May be given, or left to the unit to select.
Time: Starting time and/or required completion date.
Manpower: Additional manpower that is available.
Equipment: Additional equipment that is available. Slide 9: Job Directive Information Equipment: Any additional equipment available with especial conditions.
Materials: Source of and authority to request materials.
Priorities: Single priority for the whole project, or separate priorities for various portions of the project.
Reports: Any required reports. (i.e. Daily or Weekly status report)
Special Instructions: Any additional information pertaining to the job that is requested. Slide 10: Questions In what two forms may a job directive be issued?
Verbally or in writing
In Military construction, the planning process is divided into what two stages?
Preliminary planning and detailed planning Slide 11: ACTIVITY LISTS (Brainstorming) An activities (task) list is a complete listing of all required work activities that must be performed from start to finish.
An activity list can be brief, or as detailed as need be. The guiding factor to how much detail that is required is dictated by size and complexity of the project.
An activity list must be developed mentally and on paper to determine actual activities and their interrelationships to each other.
The most difficult step is your ability to think logically, and make a mental picture of the project in your mind. Brainstorming is needed with the assistance of the 1349, 1371 and 1361 Chief's, and the Project Officer. Slide 12: Activities
“Topo” project site Establish road grades
Lay gravel Set road alignments
Order gravel Place concrete forms
Clear roadway Clear pad site
Prefabricate forms Create project drawings
Layout pad batterboards Excavate pad footings
Pour concrete Cure concrete
Check pad elevations Check Road grades
Remove forms Perform “As-built” ROUGH ACTIVITIES LISTING Slide 13: Sequencing Activities After you have developed your rough activity list in no specific order, you must now put the activities into a "logical" sequence to be performed. The finished activity list is broken down as follows:
Activity Number Column
"Immediately Proceeded By" (IPB) Column Slide 14: Types of Activities There are five types of activities associated with the development of a finished activities list. Keeping these activities in mind will help you in your logical thinking to develop the activity list on paper.
Starting activities. (beginning activity)
Preceding activities. (previous activity)
Concurring activities. (occurring at the same time)
Succeeding activities. (following activity)
Lagging activities. (slow or lingering activities) Slide 15: Sample Finished Activities List Activity
Number Activity IPB
5 "Topo" project site None
10 Create project drawings 5
15 Order gravel None
20 Prefabricate forms None
25 Clear roadway 10
30 Set road alignments 25
35 Establish road grades 30
40 Check road grades 35
45 Lay gravel 15,40
50 Clear pad site 10
55 Layout pad batterboards 50
60 Excavate pad footings 55
65 Check pad elevations 60
70 Place concrete forms 20,65
75 Pour concrete 70
80 Cure concrete 75
85 Remove forms 80
90 Perform "as-built" 45,85 Slide 16: Questions What is the process called to develop your activities list?
What are the five types of activities that are kept in mind when developing a finish activity list?
Starting, proceeding, Succeeding, concurring, and lagging activities. Slide 17: PLANNING DIAGRAMS The most important part of the CPM is the planning diagram. The planning diagram graphically shows the interrelationship between project activities.
It provides a visual blueprint of the work activities that must be performed during construction.
There are four types of diagrams that can be created.
Each type of diagram serves a specific purpose. Slide 18: GANTT CHART Also known as a bar chart.
Gantt charts are "time" oriented.
Activities are graphically shown on a calendar time scale, used primarily for small projects.
Bars show an activities duration in its entirety, regardless of its dependency on other activities.
Effortless to construct, and are brief in format. Slide 21: GANTT CHART DISADVANTAGES Does not give you the ability to visualize the exact progress of the project.
Anticipate delays or problems soon enough to correct them.
Does not show detailed sequence of activities.
Does not show "critical activities".
Does not show precise effect of a delay or failure to complete an activity on time. Slide 22: PERT CHART DIAGRAM The Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) addresses probability, and is "event" oriented.
This type of logic diagram is used primarily for research and development projects. Slide 24: Activity-On-The-Arrow Format
(CPM) More complex in its creation.
Tendency to lead to confusion when trying to interpret it.
Least desirable format to use because of these factors. Slide 26: Activity-On-The-Node Format (CPM) Eliminates confusion, and allows you to adjust for problems that may arise during the construction of the project.
AON format is "activity" oriented.
This is the primary format used for planning military construction, and especially used for large projects. Slide 27: Activity-On-The-Node Uses: Construction planning.
Military combat task planning.
Logistics planning. Slide 28: AON Advantages Reduces risk of overlooking essential tasks.
Provides a blueprint for long-range planning.
Shows activity interrelationships.
Focuses attention on critical activities.
Allows you to make timely decisions.
Allows you to manage manpower, material, and equipmentresources more effectively. Slide 29: AON Disadvantages The AON format does not solve engineering problems that may occur.
Does not make planning decisions for you.
Does not provide anything substantial to the actual construction of the project itself. Slide 31: LOGIC DIAGRAMS ELEMENTS After the activity relationships are identified, they are applied to a logic diagram. The standard format for a logic diagram is the "Activity-on-the-Node". The four basic elements are :
Precedence Arrows. Slide 32: ACTIVITY NODE Slide 33: PRECEDENCE ARROWS Slide 34: START AND FINISH NODES QUESTIONS : QUESTIONS What type of diagram is event oriented?
What type of diagram is time oriented?
What type of diagram is activity oriented? Slide 36: LOGIC DIAGRAMS Shown as a Critical Path Method (CPM) logic diagram.
Shows accurate, timely, and easily understood picture of the whole project.
Easier to plan, schedule, and manage the sequence of required work activities.
Graphically shows the interrelationship of each work activity as they relate to the completion of the whole project. Slide 37: CPM DIAGRAM LOGIC RULES Which activities start at the beginning of the project? (Starting)
Which activities must be finished before the start of another? (Preceding)
Which activities can start or finish at the same time as another? (Concurring)
Which activities cannot begin until another is finished? (Succeeding)
Which activities may start when a portion of another activity is complete? (Lagging) LOGIC DIAGRAM DEMONSTRATION : LOGIC DIAGRAM DEMONSTRATION Slide 39: Questions What logic rules are used to create a logic diagram?
Starting, proceeding, succeeding, concurring, and lagging activities.
What type of planning diagram is “event” oriented?
Pert chart. Slide 40: Questions What type of planning diagram is “time” oriented?
What type of planning diagram is “activity” oriented?
AON and AOA diagrams. PRACTICAL EXERCISE : PRACTICAL EXERCISE Slide 42: ACTIVITY ESTIMATES Estimating each activities required resources and duration times.
Estimated resources are:
Equipment-hours. RESOURCE ESTIMATES Slide 43: MATERIAL ESTIMATES Work Items.
Total Material Requirements.
Bills of Materials. Slide 44: EQUIPMENT/PERSONNEL ESTIMATES Work Items. (Activities)
Material Quantities. (Units of work)
Work Rate. (Man-hour Tables)
Standard Work Effort (Labor). (Quantity x Work Rate)
Efficiency Factor. Represented as a Percentage)
Troop Effort (Total Labor Hours). (Standard Effort / Efficiency)
Duration (Hours, Days, Weeks, or Months). (Troop Effort / Crew Size) Slide 46: EARLY/LATE EVENT TIMES After all duration's have been computed, you are now able to calculate each activities Early and Late event times. (Forward Pass and Backward Pass)
Early Start (ES): The earliest time a activity can logically start.
Early Finish (EF): The earliest an activity can finish without delaying follow on activities. (ES + Duration)
Late Finish (LF): The latest an activity can finish without delaying the entire project.
Late Start (LS): The latest time an activity can start without delaying the entire project. (LF - Duration) Slide 47: CRITICAL PATH & CRITICAL ACTIVITIES After completing the event times, you can determine the "critical path" of the project and all of the "critical activities" by simple observation using the following guidelines:
The ES for an activity is the same as its LS.
The EF for an activity is the same as its LF. Slide 48: Activity
Number Activity IPB Duration
5 “Topo” project site None 2 days
10 Create project drawings 5 2 days
15 Order gravel None 6 days
20 Prefabricate forms None 1 day
25 Clear roadway 10 2 days
30 Set road alignments 25 1 day
35 Establish road grades 30 1 day
40 Check road grades 35 2 days
45 Lay gravel 15,40 2 days
50 Clear pad site 10 1 day
55 Layout pad batterboards 50 1 day
60 Excavate pad footings 55 2 days
65 Check pad elevations 60 1 day
70 Place concrete forms 20,65 1 day
75 Pour concrete 70 1 day
80 Cure concrete 75 6 days
85 Remove forms 80 1 day
90 Perform “As-built” 45,85 2 days ACTIVITY LIST WITH ESTIMATED DURATION'S DEMONSTRATION : DEMONSTRATION S 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 F 2 2 6 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 6 1 2 0 0 0 2 4 4 4 6 6 7 7 8 8 10 5 5 6 6 8 8 9 6 10 12 1 9 10 10 11 11 17 17 18 18 20 20 20 18 18 18 17 17 11 11 10 10 9 9 8 8 6 6 5 5 4 16 16 16 10 9 8 14 14 13 13 12 10 4 2 2 0 2 12 EARLY/LATE EVENT TIMESDEMONSTRATION Slide 50: Questions What type of resources must be estimated for each activity?
Material, personnel, equipment quantities, man hours and equipment hours.
What effect does increasing equipment quantities have on the duration of an Activity?
It decreases it’s duration time. Slide 51: Questions What do we call the process use to calculate the early event times for a project?
What do we call the process use to calculate the late event times for a project?
Backward pass. PRACTICAL EXERCISES : PRACTICAL EXERCISES Complete worksheets 3 and 4 on pg 24 and 25 in your student outline. Slide 53: EARLY START SCHEDULES An early start schedule, when joined with the logic diagram, graphically shows all of the planning information that is needed to manage the construction project from start to finish.
Any activity not on the "Critical Path" will contain some float. Float is any extra time that is available to complete an activity beyond its actual duration, without effecting the entire project. Slide 54: EARLY START SCHEDULE DEMO Worksheet 5 pg 26 in student outline Slide 55: FLOAT Total Float (TF): The entire amount of time that an activity can be delayed without delaying the entire project completion time. TF = LS - ES or LF - EF.
Interfering Float (IF): Time that is available to delay an activity without delaying the projects entire completion time, but may delay the start of one or more non-critical activities. IF = LF -ES of following activity. (Use the smallest ES time)
Free Float (FF): Time that is available to delay an activity without delaying the start of any other activity, or the entire projects completion time. FF = TF - IF Slide 56: FLOAT ALL FINISHING ACTIVITIES WILL CONTAIN ONLY FREE FLOAT
NO CALCULATIONS NEEDED
Free Float (FF): Time that is available to delay an activity without delaying the start of any other activity, or the entire projects completion time. EARLY START SCHEDULEDEMONSTRATION : EARLY START SCHEDULEDEMONSTRATION Slide 58: RESOURCE ABBREVIATIONS SQUAD = SQ 5-TON = 5T TRAM = TR
SCRAPER = SC DOZER = DZ GRADER = GD
SEE TRAC = ST EXCAVATOR = EX
COMPACTOR = CP SHEEPS FOOT = SF
SURVEY CREW = S HUMMER = HV
DRAFTSMAN = D Slide 59: S 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 F 6 2 6 2 1 6 1 6 0 0 0 EARLY START SCHEDULEDEMONSTRATION 2 2 4 6 6 7 7 13 6 6 7 7 13 13 13 13 7 7 6 6 6 0 4 4 2 7 7 6 6 0 TF = 2-0=2
FF=2-2=0 TF =4-2=2
FF= 2-0=2 5(30) 10(20) 15(25) 20(30) 25(35) 30(40) 35(F) 40(F) 4/5T 4/5T 4/4T 4/5T 4/5T 4/5T 2/TR 2/TR X X 2/SQ 2/SQ 2/SQ 2/SQ 2/SQ 2/SQ 2/CP 2/CP 1/SC 3/GR 2/SQ 2/SQ 2/SQ 2/SQ 2/SQ 2/SQ 2/5T 2/5T 2/5T 2/5T 2/5T 2/5T TOTALS 5 TON 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 TRAM 2 2 SQUAD 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 COMPACTORS 2 2 SURVEY CREW 1 GRADER 3 Slide 60: Questions What is float?
Is any extra time that is available to complete an activity beyond its actual duration without affecting the entire project.
What is interfering float?
Time that is available to delay an activity without delaying the projects entire completion time, but may delay the start of one or more non-critical activities. Slide 61: Questions What is free float?
Is any Time that is available to delay an activity without delaying the start of any other activity, or the entire projects completion time. Slide 62: You have now been given all the tools necessary to use construction management to your advantage to better control how your projects are ran.