SOLAR PV SYSTEM

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solar PV System & Solar energy in INDIA

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Solar PV System By A. Prasad Roshan , TUTICORIN, TAMILNADU. email. prasadroshan1982@gmail.com. :

Solar PV System By A. Prasad Roshan , TUTICORIN, TAMILNADU. email. prasadroshan1982@gmail.com.

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Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun 

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No particles in between , No conduction, Convection

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Renewable energy  is  energy  that is collected from renewable resources , which are naturally replenished on a human timescale , such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat Renewable energy replaces conventional fuels in four distinct areas:  electricity generation ,  hot water / space heating ,  motor fuels , and  rural (off-grid) energy services.

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Non - renewable energy  comes from  sources  that will run out or will not be replenished in our lifetimes —or even in many, many lifetimes.

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Solar Photovoltaic Photovoltaic has been derived from the combination of two words, "Photo" and "Voltaic ". Photo means light and Voltaic means electricity. It is a technology that converts light directly into electricity. Photovoltaic material, most commonly highly purified silicon converts sunlight directly into electricity.

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SOLAR POWER TERMINLOGY The energy produced by nuclear fusion is conveyed from the heart of The  Sun  by  light particles and heat , called  Photons .

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SOLAR CONSTANT is the rate at which energy reaches the earth's surface from the sun, usually taken to be 1,360 watts per square metre

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Direct and diffuse radiation .

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Diffuse sunlight:  Sunlight diffused by clouds and other atmospheric particles that have no defined direction from the sun to the observation point on the ground Direct sunlight:  Sun’s rays that fall directly from the sun to the observation point on the ground Global radiation  refers to the total solar radiation that strikes a surface. It includes both the direct and diffuse radiation.

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National Renewable Energy Laboratory

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EARTH'S ENERGY BUDGET

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When the  sun's  rays strike Earth's surface near the equator, the incoming  solar radiation  is more direct (nearly perpendicular or closer to a 90˚ angle). Therefore, the  solar radiation  is concentrated over a smaller surface area, causing warmer temperatures.

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The Sun's  zenith angle  is the angle that a beam of light makes with a line drawn perpendicular to the surface. This angle is referred to as the "  noon sun angle "

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Orientation In the northern hemisphere , a south-facing roof is ideal as the sun is always to the south if you are in the temperate zone and predominantly in the south for many parts of the tropical zone. Conversely, for those in the southern hemisphere (for instance in Australia), a north facing roof is more optimal.

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Sun Angles

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Solar Photovoltaic : Photovoltaic has been derived from the combination of two words, "Photo" and "Voltaic ". Photo means light and Voltaic means electricity. It is a technology that converts light directly into electricity. Photovoltaic material, most commonly highly purified silicon converts sunlight directly into electricity.

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There are two main types of silicon used to make solar cells.  Mono crystalline solar cells are made from wafers cut from a single large crystal of silicon while polysilicon solar cells are cut from a solid silicon ingot that is made of many smaller crystals.   Because mono silicon is mostly free of defects solar cells made from it have higher efficiency than poly silicon cells.    Poly silicon is sometimes called multi crystalline silicon

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12*6=72cells per module

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Standard test conditions (STC)  are conditions in which a module’s or cell’s current and voltage characteristics are measured and then recorded in the module data sheet. STC = 1,000 W/m², 25° C cell temperature, solar spectrum AM = 1.5.

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The  Effect  of  Temperature  on  Solar Panels . ... It is easy to presume that more sun and therefore more heat result in more electricity but this is wrong. Different  solar panels  react differently to the operating ambient  temperature , but in all cases the efficiency  of a  solar panel   decreases as it increases in  temperature .

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Ambient Temperature Solar panel temperature is an often ignored but critical parameter in a hot country like India. solar PV panels generate less power in very hot summers as the heat reduces their efficiency (the voltage reduces). In Chennai, the month of January delivers better output than May A temperature coefficient of -0.447 indicates that every 1°C increase in temperature over 25°C will cause a 0.447% decrease in power. Equally, every 1°C decrease in temperature over 25°C will cause a 0.447%increase in power

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V 1  + V 2  + V 3  + V 4  = 0.5V + 0.5V + 0.5V + 0.5V = 2.0V. For series connected cells, the combined output current is the same as that produced by each cell, then: I 1  = I 2  = I 3  = I 4  = I total .

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:V 1  = V 2  = V 3  = V 4 I 1  + I 2  + I 3  + I 4  = 1.0A + 1.0A + 1.0A + 1.0A = 4.0A.

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Negative temperature coefficient of resistance of a semiconductor An increase in the temperature of a semiconducting material results in an increase in charge-carrier concentration. This results, increasing the conductivity of the semiconductor. The increasing conductivity causes the resistivity of the semiconductor material to decrease with the rise in temperature, resulting in a negative temperature coefficient of resistance.

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A metalloid is an element with properties in between, or that are a mixture of, those of metals and nonmetals, and which is therefore hard to classify as either a metal or a nonmetal 

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Power is the rate at which energy is generated or consumed . Hence is measured in units (e.g.  watts ) that represent energy per unit time . For example, when a light bulb with a power rating of 100W is turned on for one hour, the energy used is 100  watt hours (W. h), 0.1 kilowatt hour, or 360 kJ.

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Power= Volts* Current Power = 230v*2.4A =552Watts = 0.552Kw 0.552Kw * 2 hour = 1.104 Kwh/day

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Grid-tie inverters:  Devices used to change DC Power into AC Power. AC Power is electricity we use in our houses. Grid tie inverters are different from conventional inverters because they are designed to ‘feed-into’ the existing electric supply

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Grid-connected PV system:  A photovoltaic system which feeds its excess electrical current generated into the public power grid for later use is grid connected.

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Net Meter:  This is the piece of equipment the utility installs for you in conjunction with your solar installation. Unlike traditional utility meters, a net meter counts up and down. It displays the “net usage” – the difference between how much solar electricity you generated at your property, and how much electricity you took from the utility grid.

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Hybrid solar systems generate power in the same way as a common grid-tie solar system but use batteries  to store energy for later use. This ability to store energy enables most hybrid systems to also operate as a backup power supply during a blackout, similar to a UPS system.

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THANKS

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