WELCOME : WELCOME Economic Implications of Biotechnology and Genetically Modified Organisms : Prasad.GI MSc Forestry Economic Implications of Biotechnology and Genetically Modified Organisms Economics of Bio Safety Issues & Slide 3: INTRODUCTION Like any technological innovation in agriculture, biotechnology will have economic impacts on farmers, consumers and society as a whole.
A central reason for conflict has been that bio safety governance has to be largely anticipatory, given scientific and normative uncertainties surrounding risks and benefits associated with dissemination and use of this technology. Slide 4: AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Agricultural biotechnology encompasses a range of research tools scientists use to understand and manipulate the genetic make-up of organisms for use in agriculture (crops, livestock, forestry and fisheries). Slide 5: Biotechnology can overcome production constraints that are more difficult or intractable with conventional breeding.
It can speed up conventional breeding programmes and provide farmers with disease-free planting materials.
It can create crops that resist pests and diseases, replacing toxic chemicals that harm the environment and human health,
It can provide diagnostic tools and vaccines that help control devastating animal diseases
It can create new products for industrial uses. OBJECTIVES Slide 6: It can offer direct and indirect health benefits.
Direct benefits -
improving the nutritional quality of foods (e.g. Golden Rice),
reducing the presence of toxic compounds (e.g. cassava with less cyanide) and
reducing allergens in certain foods (e.g. groundnuts and wheat).
Indirect health benefits –
reduced pesticide use,
lower occurrence of mycotoxins (caused by insect or disease damage),
increased availability of affordable food and
the removal of toxic compounds from soil. OBJECTIVES Slide 7: BIOTECHNOLOGY vs GENETIC ENGINEERING Biotechnology is much broader than genetic engineering, including also genomics and bioinformatics, marker assisted selection, micro propagation, tissue culture, cloning, artificial insemination, embryo transfer and other technologies. Slide 8: CURRENT STATUS In agriculture Genetic modification technology was first appeared in the mid 1990s in the US ( the world's largest grower of GM crops).
In 2004, GM crops occupy 81 million hectares in 17 countries.
Contribution 1.6 % of the total agricultural land in the world and the area is growing at a rate of 20 per cent every year. Slide 10: Slide 11: CURRENT STATUS - Largest biotechnology research program in the developing world (14 public-sector)
Research on GM cabbage, cauliflower, chickpeas, citrus, eggplants, mung beans, melon, mustard, potatoes, rice, tomatoes and cotton
Monsanto - private company developed the majority of the GM crops Slide 12: CURRENT STATUS - Soybean, maize, cotton and canola (rapeseed) - occupy 99 per cent of commercial plantings.
widely used GM technologies involve herbicide tolerance (HT) applied in soybean and canola, and insect resistance, based on genes isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), applied in maize and cotton. Slide 13: Advancements in Agricultural Biotechnology in 2008 In June, researchers stated that biotechnology in agriculture will play a key role in increasing corn and soybean yields by 40 percent over the next decade and overcoming climate challenges like crop-killing droughts.
In Asia, researchers announced that genetically modified Golden Rice, which is meant to improve nutrition in the developing world, may be available to farmers by 2011.
According to a report released this year, among the 23 countries growing agricultural biotechnology crops, half are less developed countries.
11 of the 12 million farmers growing biotech crops are small-holder, resource poor farmers. Slide 14: Advancements in Agricultural Biotechnology in 2008 Herbicide-tolerant crops contribute significantly to soil conservation because more farmers employ no-till, thus reducing erosion.
In China, farmers growing biotech rice reduced their pesticide use by nearly 80 percent and more than half of them used no pesticide at all. More than 10% of farmers growing conventional rice showed symptoms of pesticide poisoning, while none of the farmers growing pest resistant rice did. Agricultural biotechnology is also being recognized for its environmental benefits. ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF TRANSGENIC CROPS : ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF TRANSGENIC CROPS Slide 17: IMPACTS The impact of the technology on agronomic practices and yields
Consumers' willingness to buy foods and other products derived from transgenic crops, and
Regulatory requirements and associated costs. In long term, the industry concentration in the production and marketing of transgenic crop technology may also influence the level and distribution of economic benefits. Slide 18: IMPACTS The gain or loss depends on consumer preferences and regulatory regimes evolve. Consumers generally benefit from innovation has lower prices and/or higher quality. Slide 19: OBJECTIVES But it is complicated with transgenic crops for at least two reasons:
mandatory labeling and market segregation could add to the costs of producing and marketing transgenic crops,
some consumers are strongly opposed to the technology. Hence the net economic impact of transgenic crops on society is thus a highly complex and dynamic concept that is not easily measured. Economics of Bio Safety Issues : Economics of Bio Safety Issues Slide 21: CONTENTIOUS ISSUE - T. Crops Lack the regulatory frameworks and technical capacity necessary to evaluate these crops and the conflicting claims surrounding them
Less scientific consensus on the environmental hazards associated with transgenic crops
Regulatory procedures should be strengthened and rationalized to ensure that the environment and public health are protected and that the process is transparent, predictable and science-based
Hence Appropriate regulation is essential to command the trust of both consumers and producers Slide 22: CARTAGENA PROTOCOL ON BIOSAFETY Convention on Biological Diversity adopted a supplementary agreement known as the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety on 29 January 2000.
The protocol became international law in September 2003 and has since been ratified by more than 100 countries excluding USA.
India has acceded to the Biosafety Protocol on 17th January 2003. [Cartagena is in Colombia]. Slide 23: SCOPE OF THE PROTOCOL The Protocol seeks to protect from the potential risks posed by Living Modified Organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology intended for direct use for food, feed or processing.
It incorporates procedure for import of LMOs with respect to Food Feed and Product (FFP), Risk Assessment and Risk Management Framework and Capacity Building. Slide 24: CARTAGENA PROTOCOL Some of the salient features of the protocol are: 1. Precautionary principle: 'Precautionary principle', is the basis of the Cartagena Protocol. The Protocol reaffirms the Precautionary principle in decision procedures, risk assessment and risk management in the context of the protocol. 2. Advance informed agreement (AIA) : It establishes an advance informed agreement (AIA) procedure for ensuring that countries are provided with the information necessary to make informed decisions before agreeing to the import of such organisms into their territory. Slide 25: 3. Traceability : Protocol calls for provision of detailed information for handling, packaging and transportation, and clear identification of LMOs. Importer of LMOs should be able to trace back the original exporter.
4. Liability & Redress : The term "liability" is normally associated with the obligation under the applicable law to provide for compensation for damage resulting from an action for which that person is deemed to be responsible.
5. Biosafety Clearing-House [BCH] : The Biosafety Clearing-House was established by the Protocol to facilitate the exchange of information on living modified organisms and to assist countries in the implementation of the Protocol. CARTAGENA PROTOCOL Bio Safety Procedures & Issues - India : Bio Safety Procedures & Issues - India Slide 27: BIOSAFETY ISSUES India has acceded to the Biosafety Protocol on 17th January 2003.
Genetically modified organisms are regulated in India under the purview of the 1986 Indian Environment (Protection) Act.
Ministry of Environment & Forests, has notified the Rules for the Manufacture, Use, Import, Export and Storage of Hazardous Microorganisms/ Genetically Engineered Organisms or Cells under this act.
These rules also define the competent authorities and composition of such authorities for handling of various aspects of the rules. Slide 28: BIO SAFETY PROCEDURES Presently there are six competent authorities
Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RDAC),
Institutional Biosafety Committees (IBSC),
Review Committee on Genetic Manipulation (RCGM),
Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC),
State Biotechnology Coordination Committee (SBCC) and
the District Level Committee (DLC) Slide 29: THEIR ROLE Department of Biotechnology Review Committee on Genetic Manipulation (RCGM) ,
supervises research activities including small scale field trials Ministry of Environment and Forests Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC), approvals for large scale releases and commercialization of GMOs Slide 30: Bt. Cotton Transgenic crops approved for commercial cultivation in India:
Three Bt. cotton hybrids
MECH 162 &
MECH 184 expressing cry 1 Ac gene Slide 31: RECOMBINANT DNA PHARMACEUTICALS Recombinant DNA Pharmaceuticals approved for marketing in India :
Recombinant DNA pharmaceuticals approved for manufacturing in India: Slide 32: Socio-economic Issues The types of decisions that governments have to make
Whether to import GM ingredients, or manufacture foods and products containing GM ingredients
Whether to allow GM seeds to be planted commercially
Policy on research in agricultural biotechnology; Setting a balance between public and private investment.
Appropriate laws and regulatory mechanisms to ensure GM food products cannot harm the health of people, animals, environment or pollinate non-GM crops
Whether food containing GM produce should be labeled. Slide 33: REFERENCES www.whybiotech.com
www.nature.com/uidfinder/10.1038/457946a Slide 34: THANK U