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Slide 1: 

Sst project based on “The Resources” and “the soil with classification”.

Slide 2: 

What is a resource? The resource refers to anything available in the environment which can be used to satisfy our needs and provided that is technologically accesible; economically feasible and culturally acceptable. Resources

Slide 3: 

# The Resources can be classified on the four basis. These includes: 1) On the basis of “Origin”. 2) On the basis of “Exhaustability”. 3) On the basis of “Ownership”. 4) On the basis of “Status of Development”. Classification of Resources

Resources on the basis of “Exhaustibility”. : 

Resources on the basis of “Exhaustibility”. Renewable Resources: The resources which can be renewed or reproduced by some kind of physical, chemical or mechanical method are known as “Renewable Resources”. E.g. Water, forests etc. Non-Renewable Resources: The resources which take million of years in their formation and cannot be renewed by any kind of method are known as “Non-Renewable Resources”. E.g. fossil fuels etc.

Resources on the basis of ownership : 

Resources on the basis of ownership Individual Resources: The resources which are owned privately by individuals are known as “Individual resources”. e.g. Ponds, Wells etc. Community Owned Resources: The resources which are accessible to all the members of the community are called “Community Owned Resources”. e.g. Parks, Picnic Spots etc. National Resources: The resources which belong to a nation and a country has legal powers to aquire them are called “National Resources”. e.g.Wildlife, Forests etc. International Resources: The resources which are regulated by the international institutions are termed as “International Resources”.

What is territorial water? : 

What is territorial water? All the oceanic area beyond 12 nautical miles or aproximately 19.2 km from the coast of a country is termed as territorial water.

The Resources on the basis of “Status of Development” : 

The Resources on the basis of “Status of Development” Potential Resources: The resources which are found in a region but they have not been utilised yet are termed as “Potential Resources”. e.g. Wind and Solar Energy etc. Developed Resources: The resources which are surveyed on the basis of quantity and quality are termed as “Developed Resources”. Stock: The resources which have potential to satisfy our needs but humans do not have appropriate technology to use them are categorized under “Stock”. e.g. Hydrogen and Oxygen present in water etc.

What are Reserves? : 

What are Reserves? Reserves are the subset of “STOCK” which can be put into use with the help of present technology but their use have not been started yet.

What is sustainable development? : 

What is sustainable development? Sustainable development means “development should take place without damaging the environment and should not compromise with the needs of the future generations”.

Rio de janeiro : 

Rio de janeiro In june 1992, more than 100 heads of states met at Rio De Janeiro in brazil for the first international Earth summit. The summit was convened for addressing urgent problems of environmental protection and socio economic development. The Rio Convention endorsed the global forest principles and adopted agenda 21 for achieving sustainable development in the 21st century.

What was “Agenda 21”? : 

What was “Agenda 21”? It was the declaration signed by the world leaders in 1992 at UNCED (united nations conference on environment and development) that took place at Rio De Janeiro, Brazil. It was an agenda to combat environmental damage, Poverty, Disease through global co-operation, mutual needs etc. Its one major objective was that every local government would draw its own agenda 21.

Land Resources : 

Land Resources

Land under important relief features : 

Land under important relief features

Land Utilisation : 

Land Utilisation Forests Land not available for cultivation (a) Barren and waste land (b) Land for non agricultural uses e.g. roads, factories etc. Other uncultivated land:- (a) Grazing lands (b) Land under miscellaneous tree crops groves (c) Culturable waste land Fallow lands (a) Current fallow( land not under cultivation since 1 year) (b) Other than current fallow( land not under cultivation since 1-5 agricultural years) Net sown area: The area sown more than once in an agricultural year plus the net sown area is known as gross cropped area.

Land degradation : 

Land degradation After the work, the mining sites leave deep scars and traces of over burdening. e.g. Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh etc. Over grazing is one of the main reasons for land degradation. e.g. Gujrat, Rajasthan, Maharashtra etc. In states like punjab, Haryana, Over grazing is responsible for land degradation due to water logging.

Land conservation measures : 

Land conservation measures There are many ways to solve the problems of land degradation:- Afforestation and proper management of grazing Planting of shelter belts of plants. Control on over grazing. Stabilisation of sand dunes. Proper management of waste lands, control of mining activities. Proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents can reduce land and water degradation in industrial and suburban areas.

Indias: Wasteland in 2000 : 

Indias: Wasteland in 2000

Alluvial Soil : 

Alluvial Soil The soil is widely spread throughout the country along the coastal regions. It is mainly deposited by main three important Himalayan rivers including The Indus, The Ganga and The Brahmaputra. The soil consists of sand, silt and clay. Soil particles appear bigger in size. The soils are more common in piedominant plains of Duars, Chos and Teraj. The soil can be classified into 2soils: 1. Bangar 2. Khadar

What is Khadar and Bangar? : 

What is Khadar and Bangar? Khadar and Bangar are the two types of the alluvial soil. The old alluvial is known as “Bangar”. The new alluvial is known as “Khadar”. The bangar soil has higher concentration of Kanker nodules than the khadar Khadar has more fine particles and is more fertile than bangar.

Black Soil : 

Black Soil The soil is black in colour and are also known as “Regur Soil”. It is ideal for the growth of cotton and is therefore known as “Black Cotton Soil”. It is spread over northwest deccan plateau and cover parts of Maharashtra, Malva, Saurashtra, Madhya Pradesh etc. It is made of lava flow and develop deep cracks in summers. It is made of clayey material and therefore well known for “Water holding capacity”. It is rich in soil nutrients such as “Calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime. Thes soils are difficult to work unless tilled immediately after or during the first shower.

Laterite Soil : 

Laterite Soil Laterite is derived from a latin word ‘later’ meaning a brick. It develops in areas recieving high temperature and heavy rainfall. Humus content is low due to high temperature. Mainly found in Kerala, Karnatka, Tamil Nadu etc It is suitable for the growth of tea and coffee. Red Laterite soil in Tamil Nadu, Kerala is suitable for the growth of crops like cashew nuts.

Red and Yellow Soil : 

Red and Yellow Soil It develops on crystalline ignesous rocks in areas of low rainfall in the eastern and southern parts of the “Deccan plateau”. Found in parts of Orrisa, Chattisgarh, southern parts of the middle Ganga plain and along the Western Ghats. These soils develop a reddish colour due to diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks. It also looks Yellow when it occurs in the hydrated form.

Arid Soil : 

Arid Soil It varies from “red to brown” in colour. It is generally sandy in textutre and saline in nature. The soil lacks humus and moisture. The lower horizons are occupied by the kanker nodules because of the increasing calcium content downwards. Found in some parts of Rajasthan, Gujrat etc. After proper irrigation, the soil becomes cultivable.

Forest Soil : 

Forest Soil These soils are found in the hilly and mountainous areas receiving sufficient rainfall. The soil texture varies according to the place it is formed. The soils are loamy and silty in valley sides. These soils experience denudation and are acidic with low humus content.

Soil Erosion and conservation : 

Soil Erosion and conservation The denudation of the soil cover and subsequent washing down is described as “soil erosion”. The soil conservation refers to the preservation of the soil from the soil erosion. The process of soil erosion and the conservation goes on simultaneously.


CONSERVING THE SOIL Ploughing along the contour lines can decelerate the flow of water down the slopes. this is called contour ploughing. Terrace cultivation restricts soil erosion. Large fields can be divided into strips. Strips of grasses are left behind to grow between the crops. This method is called “Strip cropping”. Planting lines of trees to create shelters. Rows of such trees are called “shelter belts”.

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