types of farming

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Types of farming Depending upon the geographical conditions, demand of produce, labour and level of technology, farming is divided into TWO main types Subsistence Farming Commercial Farming

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Subsistence Farming Practised to meet the needs of the farmer’s family Low levels of technology and small amount of labour is used Output of subsistence farming is used for the existence of the farmer’s family

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Subsistence Farming Intensive Subsistence Farming Primitive Subsistence Farming

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Intensive Subsistence Farming Farmer cultivates a small plot of land Uses simple tools and more labour More than one crop annually because of more number of days with sunshine

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Main crops Rice wheat Maize pulses Oil seeds Practised in the thickly populated areas of the monsoon regions SOUTH, SOUTHEAST AND EAST ASIA

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Primitive subsistence farming Shifting cultivation Nomadic Herding

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Shifting cultivation A plot of land is cleared by felling the trees and the trees are burnt The ashes are mixed with the soil to make the soil fertile Crops like maize, yarn, potatoes and cassava are grown

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After one or two times of crop, the soil loses its fertility The land is abandoned and the cultivator moves to a new plot Amazon basin Tropical Africa Parts of southeast Asia Northeast India

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Shifting Cultivation is otherwise called Slash and Burn agriculture

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Nomadic Herding Herders move from one place to another with their animals for fodder and water Sheep, camel, yak and goats are most commonly reared

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Practised in the semi arid and arid regions of Sahara Central Asia Rajasthan Jammu and Kashmir Herding produces milk, meat, wool, hides and other products to the herders.

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Commercial Farming Crops are grown, animals are reared for sale in market The area of cultivation is very large Most of the work is done by machines Amount of human labour is very less

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Commercial Farming Commercial Grain Farming Mixed Farming Plantations

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Commercial Grain Farming Crops are grown for commercial purposes Wheat Maize North America Europe Asia Farms spread over hundreds of hectares and sparsely populated

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Mixed Farming Land is used for growing food and fodder crops and for rearing livestock Europe Eastern USA Argentina Southeast Australia New Zealand South Africa

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Plantations Type of commercial farming Single crop of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana, cotton are grown

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Plantations require large amount of labour and capital Product of a plantation is processed in the farm itself or in the nearby factories A well developed transport system is essential for plantation type of farming.

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Major plantations of the world are found in the tropical regions of the world. Examples are Rubber in Malaysia Coffee in Brazil Tea in India and Sri Lanka

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In 1820, the world’s population reached 1 billion After a hundred and fifty years later, in 1970s, it touched 3 billion This sudden increase in population in a short span of time is called POPULATION EXPLOSION