Minerals

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Minerals & Power Resources The present age is known as IRON AGE. A naturally occurring substance that has a definite chemical composition is a mineral.

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Minerals and power resources form the backbone of industry in any country. There are over three thousand minerals On the basis of composition, minerals are classified into two

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Minerals Metallic Non-metallic Ferrous Non-ferrous

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Ferrous minerals contain iron in it Iron ore, manganese, chromites etc Non-metallic minerals do not contain metals Non-ferrous minerals do not contain iron, but contain some other metals Limestone, mica, gypsum etc

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The minerals which occur in the metal form is known as METALLIC MINERALS. Minerals which are not metals are known as NON-METALLIC MINERALS. Metallic minerals which are mixed with impurities are called ORES.

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The process of taking the minerals from rocks under the earth’s surface is known as mining. Extraction of Minerals Mining Quarrying Deepshaft Opencast Drilling

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The impurities are removed through a process called SMELTING.

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Non-metallic minerals Non-metallic minerals do not posses any content of metal.

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Minerals do not occur near the surface of the Earth. The extraction of minerals from the Earth’s depth is known as MINING. A MINE is an opened-up hole on the surface of the Earth to extract minerals from the depth of the Earth. Mines are of TWO kinds. Opencast Deep shaft

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Minerals that lie at small depth can be taken out by removing the surface layer . This is OPEN CAST mining. Shaft Mining is used for taking out the minerals that lie at great depths. Minerals like gold, diamond and iron are extracted from OPENCAST mines.

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Usually OIL, NATURAL GAS and COAL are extracted from DEEP SHAFT mines.

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OPENCAST mines are also known as QUARRIES. QUARRIES are usually used for mining stones, marble, granite etc.

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Distribution of Minerals All the minerals are found in rocks on the Earth. Some are found in igneous, some in sedimentary and some in metamorphic rocks. Generally metallic minerals are found in igneous and metamorphic rocks, because they are directly formed as a result of solidification of MAGMA.

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Usually SEDIMENTARY rocks contain non-metallic minerals like limestone. Mineral fuels such as petroleum are also found in sedimentary rocks.

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Asia’s mineral Wealth China and India have large iron ore deposits The two countries produce more than half of the world’s tin. China leads in the production of lead and tungsten etc. Asia ha s good deposit of manganese, bauxite, nickel zinc and copper too.

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Leading producer of iron ore in the world after China. Europe’s mineral Wealth Russia, Ukraine, Sweden, and France Deposits of copper, lead, zinc, manganese and nickel

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Mineral deposits in three zones. North America Minerals in North America Canadian Shield Appalachian Region Western Cordilleras

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South America Brazil produces high grade iron Chile and Peru produce copper Deposits of gold, silver, zinc, chromium, manganese, bauxite, mica, platinum, asbestos and diamond Petroleum is found in Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, Peru and Columbia. OPEC

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AFRICA Rich in mineral resources Largest producer of diamonds, gold and platinum South Africa, Zimbabwe and Zaire produce gold Copper, iron ore, chromium, uranium, cobalt, bauxite Petroleum is found in Nigeria, Libya and Angola

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AUSTRALIA Largest producer of bauxite Leading producer of gold, diamond, iron ore, tin, nickel, copper, lead, zinc & manganese Kalgoorlie & Coolgardie areas have largest deposits of gold

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