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Basic concepts in nanotechnology


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NANOTECHNOLOGY By:- Pramod Rathor BSH-08-048


Milestone 1959 R. Feynman Delivers “ Plenty of Room at the Bottom” • 1974 First Molecular Electronic Device Patented • 1981 Scanning Tunneling Microscopic (STM) • 1986 Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) Invented • 1987 First single-electron transistor created • 1991 Carbon Nanotubes Discovered • 2000 US Launches National Nanotechnology Initiative • 2002. 01 ITRI Nano Research Center Established

What is Nanomaterial?:

What is Nanomaterial? Nanomaterials are commonly defined as materials with an average grain size less than 100 nanometers. One billion nanometers equals one meter


Comparisons The average width of a human hair is on the order of 100,000 nanometers A single particle of smoke is in the order of 1,000 nanometers.

Why Nanotech?:

Why Nanotech?


Cont…. Nanotechnology exploits benefits of ultra small size, enabling the use of particles to deliver a range of important benefits… – Small particles are ‘invisible’ : • Transparent Coatings/Films are attainable – Small particles are very weight efficient: • Surfaces can be modified with minimal material.




Nanotechnology Nanotechnology: The creation of functional materials, devices and systems through control of matter on the nanometer(1~100nm) length scale and the exploitation of novel properties and phenomena developed at that scale.


Approaches Top-down – Breaking down matter in to more basic building blocks. Frequently uses chemical or thermal methods. Bottoms-up – Building complex systems by combining simple atomic-level components.

Different types of Nanomaterials:

Different types of Nanomaterials Nano powder – Building blocks (less than 100 nm in diameter) for more complex nanostructures.


Nanotube Carbon nanotubes are tiny strips of graphite sheet rolled into tubes a few nanometers in diameter and up to hundreds of micrometers (microns) long. – The Strongest Material


Nanopowders Advanced nanophase materials synthesized from nanopowders have improved properties. Such as increased stronger and less breakable ceramics. They may conduct electrons, ions, heat, or light more readily then conventional materials. Exhibit improved magnetic and catalytic properties.

Advantages of Nanopowders:

Advantages of Nanopowders Continuous connections between large numbers of grains make the material more stretchable and ductile so it doesn't easily crack. • Made of tight clusters of very small particles, resulting in overlapping electron clouds that induce quantum effects. Possibly resulting in more efficient conduction of light or electricity

Nanopowders Applications:

Nanopowders Applications Useful in manufacturing inhalable drugs. • Particles in the micrometer scale are deposited in the alveoli of the lung, often leading to clumping problems. Could use smaller nanoparticles to prevent clumping by forcing spacing.


Nanotube Carbon Nanotube(CNT) Originally, discovered as by products of fullerenes and now are considered to be the building blocks of future nanoscale electronic and mechanical devices

Discovery of CNT:

Discovery of CNT (1) Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (MWNT) - Sumio Ijyma(Nature,1991) (2) Single-Walled carbon Nanotube (SWNT) - Ijyma,Bethune,et al. (1993) (3) Single Crystals of SWNT - R.R.Schlittler,et al. (Science, May.2001)

Structure of Nanotube:

Structure of Nanotube SWNT atom structures - Basically, sheets of graphite rolled up into a tube. - The hexagonal two dimensional lattice of graphite is mapped on a cylinder of radius R with various helicities characterized by the rolling vectors (n,m).



Nanotube applications:

Nanotube applications Structural elements in bridges, buildings, towers, and Cables Material for making lightweight vehicles for all terrains Heavy-duty shock absorbers Open-ended straws for chemical probing and cellular injection Nanoelectronics including batteries capacitors, and diodes

Nanostructures in Biological Systems:

Nanostructures in Biological Systems Two major concerns 1. To be large enough they don’t just pass through the body. 2. Need to be small enough they don’t accumulate in vital organs and create toxicity problems.

Biological Nanodevices:

Biological Nanodevices Bottom-up approach frequently used when constructing nanomaterials for use in medicine • Most animal cells are 10 to 20 thousand nanometers in diameter. • Nanodevices smaller than 100 nanometers would be able to enter the cells and organelles where they could interact with DNA and proteins.

Cancer Detection and Diagnosis:

Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Currently done by physical examination or imaging techniques • Early molecular changes not detected by these methods. • Need to detect changes in small percentage of cells, need very sensitive technology, “enter” nanostructures.

Improvements in Diagnostics:

Improvements in Diagnostics Nanodevices could exam tissue or cell samples without physically altering them. • Improving miniaturization will allow nanodevices to contain the tools to perform multiple tests simultaneously. • Leading to faster, more efficient, and less sample consuming diagnostic tests.


Cantilevers Tiny levers that bind to molecules associated with cancerous tissue. (such as altered DNA sequences or proteins) • Surface tension changes lead to bonded cantilevers bending, which can be used to detect the presence of these molecules. • May allow detection of earlier stages of cancer


Nanopores • Helps researchers detect errors in the genetic cause that may lead to cancer. • Funnels DNA through, one strand at a time, resulting in more efficient DNA sequencing. • Monitor shape and electrical properties of each base as they pass through the nanopore. • Properties, which are unique to the bases, allow the nanopore to help decipher information encoded in the DNA.


Nanotubes Carbon rods approximately half the diameter of a DNA molecule. • Used to detect the presence, and exact location, of altered genes. • Bulky molecules designed to “tag” specific DNA mutation.

Nanotubes (cont):

Nanotubes (cont) Nanotubes trace the physical shape of the DNA, outlining the mutated regions. • Important because location of mutations influence the effects they have on the cell

Quantum Dots:

Quantum Dots Tiny crystals that glow when they are stimulated by ultraviolet light. • Color of glow dependent on size. • Create latex beads designed to bind to specific DNA sequences. Quantum dots within the beads can be used to identify specific regions of DNA. • Diversity allows creation of many unique “dot labels” for DNA sequences. • Useful because cancer often results from accumulation of many different changes in cells.

Cancer Treatment:

Cancer Treatment Nanotechnology may allow treatments that target cancer cells without harming nearby healthy cells. • May allow creation of therapeutic agents that have a controlled, time-release strategy for delivering toxins


Nanoshells Upon absorbing infrared light, release a lethal dose of intense heat. • Linking nanoshells to antibodies that recognize cancer cells has successfully allowed researchers to kill cancer cells without harming neighboring noncancerous tissue. (in a laboratory)

Slide 33:

Nanotechnology in Electronic Applications

Moore’s Law:

Moore’s Law Gordon Moore (co-founder of Intel) predicted in 1965 that the transistor density of semiconductor chips would double roughly every 18 months.


Facts Nanotechnology’s ability to continually increase the amount of data that fits on a microchip provided the industry with escalating computing speed and power, which led to even-more powerful products and a strong motive for customers to upgrade.

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