Resistance in Rabi Maize final

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Synopsis Seminar on Host plant resistance in Rabi maize to Chilo partellus and Sesamia inferens:

Synopsis Seminar on Host plant resistance in Rabi maize to Chilo partellus and Sesamia inferens Presented by Viraj Kumar ID. Z-0947 I.A.S. BHU Varanasi- 5

Introduction:

Introduction Maize is a multipurpose crop, providing food and fuel for human beings, feed for animals, poultry and livestock. Maize grains have great nutritional value and are used as raw material for manufacturing many industrial products. In India maize is grown over an area of 8.19 million hectares with total production of 19.29 million tone and national average production of 2335 kg/ha which is very low as compared to other countries.

Contd…:

Contd … There are many factors for this low yield. Among these factors, insect pests are most important. Maize plant is attacked by 140 species of insects causing varying degree of damage. Out of these, only 10 species cause serious damage from sowing till storage ( Arabjafari & Jalali , 2007).

Contd…:

Contd … Lepidopterans stem borers are one of the major constraints to maize production in India Most damaging species are Chilo partellus and Sesamia inferens . A loss of 24-75% has been reported by the attack of this pest. (Kumar & Mihm , 1995, 1996; Kumar, 2002).

Contd…:

Contd … Maize grown in Rabi is known to be free from the attack of any major insect pest that usually affect the Khari crop. Nature of damage and behaviour of this pest makes it very difficult to control by conventional insecticides and biological control agents. Because once the pest enters the plant tissue, it becomes almost impossible for biological control agents and pesticides to reach the target.

Contd…:

Contd… Moreover the indiscriminate use of the pesticides has caused many problems like eradication of natural enemies and polluting the environment along with the resistance in the pest. Host plant resistance is one of the preferred methods of controlling stem borers .

Significance of the study:

Significance of the study Maize is C 4 plant. These plants are able to photosynthesize even when the stomata are nearly closed whereas C 3 plants (rice, wheat) cannot do so. It is also photoinsensitive in nature. So the crop can be grown round the year. It can produce to the extent of 20 tons/ha as against 10 tons in rice and 8 tons in wheat.

Contd…:

Contd … Winter (rabi) maize is now playing a dominant role in augmenting the total food grain production increases due to its very high (2-3 time more than kharif ) yield potential. Available information and success story of Bihar suggests that rabi maize can profitably be grown in the entire Indo-Gangetic plains. Today, rabi maize technology is well accepted in the cropping systems in states like Bihar, eastern Uttar Pradesh , Banswara region of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. The farmers are demanding improved technologies especially more productive hybrid like single crosses. Cultivation of rabi and spring maize is of special advantage to the wheat farmers as it can provide an excellent opportunity to control the dreaded weed like Phalaris minor, Avena sativa etc.

Specific objectives:

Specific objectives Screenng of maize varietis /genotypes against Chilo partellus and Sesamia inferens under natural condition. To find out relationship between damage and yield. Damage evaluation for resistance screening.

General objective :

General objective To identify maize varieties resistance against C.partellus and Sesamia inferens . To make the control measure safe, economical and more productive .

Materials and Method:

Materials and Method Screening of different maize varieties under natural infestation. Evaluation of resistant maize varieties in the field for resultant losses. Design of Experiment Design: RBD (Randomized Block Design) No of treatments: 3 No of Replications: 10

Information regarding Pest life cycle:

Information regarding Pest life cycle Chilo partellus

Contd…:

Contd … Female lays up to 500 eggs. The larval development is completed in 19 to 27 days Pupation takes place inside the stem and the adults emerge in 7 to 10 days. During the off-season, the larvae diapauses in plant stalks and stubbles. With the onset of rainy season. The larvae pupate and the adults emerge in 7 days

B. Sesamia inferens:

B. Sesamia inferens

Life cycle:

Life cycle

Resistance-screening techniques:

Resistance-screening techniques Leaf feeding . Record the rate of leaf feeding 2 weeks after artificial infestation, and 4 to 5 weeks after crop emergence under natural infestation. Record the total number of plants, the number of plants showing the leaf-feeding symptoms, and the leaf-feeding score on a 1 to 9 scale (1 = <10% leaf area damaged, 2 = 11 - 20, 3 = 21 - 30, 4 = 31 - 40, 5 = 41 - 50, 6 = 51 - 60, 7 = 61 - 70, 8 = 71 - 80, and 9 > 81% leaf area damaged).

Contd…:

Contd… Deadhearts . Record plants with deadhearts 3 weeks after artificial infestation, and 4 to 6 weeks after crop emergence under natural infestation. Record the total number of plants, plants showing borer deadhearts , and the visual score (1 to 9 scale) as described for leaf feeding score (1 = <10% plants with deadhearts , and 9 = >80% plants with deadhearts ).

Contd…:

Contd… Chaffy panicles. At crop harvest, record observations on the number of partial and completely chaffy panicles, the number of broken panicles, and the visual score (1 to 9 scale) for chaffy/broken panicles, and grain mass per 100 grains.

Contd…:

Contd… Recovery resistance . Record the number of plants with tillers and the number of tillers with productive panicles. Evaluate for recovery resistance on a 1 to 5 scale (1 = >80% plants with 2 to 3 uniform and productive tillers, and 5 = <20% plants with one or nil non-uniform productive tillers).

Contd…:

Contd… Stem tunneling . At maturity, record plant height and the peduncle length of five plants at random in each plot. Measure the stem and peduncle tunneling separately and express it as a percentage of stem/peduncle length.

Some Photographs:

Some Photographs

THANK YOU:

THANK YOU

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