Slide 1: Welcome Integrated circuit : Integrated circuit presented by
G.Pugalendiran. Integrated circuit: : Integrated circuit: A complex set of electronic components and their interconnections that are imprinted onto a tiny slice of semiconducting material. Integrated Circuits are usually called ICs or chips. Introduction: : Introduction: The first integrated circuit was developed in the 1950s by Jack Kilby
Synthetic detail of an integrated circuit through four layers of planarized copper interconnect, down to the polysilicon (pink), wells (greyish), and substrate(green).
Computers, cellular phones, and other digital appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies. That is, modern computing , communications, manufacturing and transport systems, including the Internet , all depend on the existence of integrated circuits. OVER VIEW OF IC”s : OVER VIEW OF IC”s IC's can be soldered directly into printed circuit boards, or may plug into sockets which have already been soldered into the board.
When soldering, ensure that the IC (or the socket) is the correct way round and that no pins have been bent underneath the body.
When fitting new IC's it is often necessary to bend the pins in slightly, in order to fit it into the board (or socket). Chips: : Chips: Chips are same sizes 40×40 mils to 300×3000 mils.
1 mils= 0.001 inch
It is a Small scale integration, it was made up of 12 gates .(Diode,Transister,resistance).
It is A Medium scale integration,it was made up of 12- 100 gates. multiplexers, small memories, arithmetic circuits here. Slide 7: LSI :
It is a Large scale integration .it made up of more then 100 logic gates. It have many Memory units and microprocessors
It is a Very large scale integration. Single chip having 1000-10000 same logic gates .it have more capacity memory units&
microprocessor system. Types of Ics: : Types of Ics: Integrated circuits can be classified into three types they are,
Analog ICs, such as sensors, power management circuits, and operational amplifiers, work by processing continuous signals. They perform functions like amplification, active filtering, de modulation, mixing, etc Con……. : Con……. Digital integrated circuits can contain anything from one to millions of logic gates, multiplexers(A device that can interleave two or more activities), and other circuits in a few square millimeters. The small size of these circuits allows high speed, low power dissipation, and reduced manufacturing cost compared with board-level integration.
ICs can also combine analog and digital circuits on a single chip to create functions such as Ac/Dc converters and Dc/Ac converters. Such circuits offer smaller size and lower cost. Ics advantages: : Ics advantages: Small size.
Very Low weight.
Best quality. Advantages : : Advantages : To start, while integrated circuits are smaller and usually require less power to operate, they are extremely difficult (if not impossible) to modify or repair.
The IC is also more susceptable to electric damage from a power surge (A brief strong increase in the electrical power supplied )than its beefier(heavily built) component cousins.
IC's have the advantage in weight, size and power consumption, giving IC's the nod on portability. They are also less prone to damage from physical jarring(irregular movements). Dis-advantages : Dis-advantages A potential disadvantage of integrated circuits is the cost of replacing an IC that has failed
Another disadvantage of integrated circuits is that design corrections and incremental design improvements are not readily made.
One disadvantage of integrated circuits is that they can be unsuitable for custom designed equipment, because high volumes are needed in order to justify the design and tooling costs. Application : Application An application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is an integrated circuit customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use.
For example, a chip designed solely to run a cell phone is an ASIC.
As feature sizes have shrunk and design tools improved over the years, the maximum complexity (and hence functionality) possible in an ASIC has grown from 5,000 gates to over 100 million. Modern ASICs often include memory blocks including ROM, RAM, Flash and other large building blocks. References: : References: www. wikipedia./i.c/.org
www. theinquirer.net / default.aspx.
www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Robert_Noyce. Slide 16: Thank you