perception and Attribution

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Perception & Attribution : 

Perception & Attribution

Definition/Meaning of Perception : 

Definition/Meaning of Perception Perception (in general) is the process of attaining awareness or understanding of sensory information. A cognitive information processing process that enables us to interpret and understand our environment. The process by which individual select, organize, and interpret the input from their senses to (respond) in order to give meaning world around them.

Components of perception : 

Components of perception The Perceiver The Target of perception The Situation

Nature and Importance : 

Nature and Importance Decision Making Effective Management and Leadership Understanding Human Behavior Effective Team Work Innovation and Alternative solutions

Factors Influencing Perception : 

Factors Influencing Perception A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception. These factors can be reside in the mind of PERCEIVER, in the OBJECT/TARGET being perceived in the context of the SITUATION in which the perception is made.

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Factors in the Perceiver Attitude Motives Interests Experience Expectations Factors in the Situations Time Work Setting Social Setting Factors in the Target Novelty Motion Sound Size Background Similarity PERCEPTION

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9 Organizational Behavior / Perception

Perceptual Selectivity : 

Perceptual Selectivity Perceptual selectivity is the process by which individuals screen and select various objects and stimuli that vie for their attention. Factors influence this process include:

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Learning and Perception Learning by itself plays a major role in developing the perceptual set. Hilly Ahead Terrain

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Motivation and Perception Primary Motives Secondary Motives Personality and Perception Personality of a person influence perception.

The perceptual process : 

The perceptual process Sensation An individual’s ability to detect stimuli in the immediate environment. Selection The process a person uses to eliminate some of the stimuli that have been sensed and to retain others for further processing. Organization The process of placing selected perceptual stimuli into a framework for “storage” Translation The stage of the perceptual process at which stimuli are interpreted and given meaning.

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SELECTING STIMULI External Factors: Nature, Location, Size, Contrast, Similarity, Repetition. Internal Factors: Learning, Age, Interest. INTERPRETING Attribution, Stereotyping, Halo Effect, Projection ORGANIZING Figure Background, Perceptual Grouping, (Similarity, Community, Proximity) RESPONSE Covert: Attitude, Motivation, Feeling Overt: Behavior RECEIVING STIMULI (External & Internal) Perceptual Process

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Chapter-5 15

Perceptual Organization : 

Perceptual Organization It is the process by which we group outside stimuli into recognizable and identifiable patterns and whole objects.

Forms of Perceptual Organization : 

Forms of Perceptual Organization Figure Ground Perceptual Constancy Perceptual Context Perceptual Defense Perceptual Grouping Closure Continuity Proximity Similarity

Figure Ground : 

Figure Ground In perceiving stimuli or phenomena, the tendency is to keep certain phenomena in focus and other phenomena in background.

Perceptual Constancy : 

Perceptual Constancy The perception of elements like size, shape, color, brightness and location of an object remains constant and does not change from individual to individual. Example : Photograph Perceptual Context It provides meaning and value to objects, events, situation and other people in the environment.

Perceptual Defense : 

Perceptual Defense It refers to the screening of those elements which create conflict and threatening situation in people.

Perceptual Grouping : 

Perceptual Grouping An individual tends to group several stimuli together into a recognizable pattern. It is very basic in nature and largely it seems to be in born. Others Closure Continuity Proximity Similarity

Social Perception : 

Social Perception It is directly concerned with how one individual perceives other individuals, how we get to know others. Nonverbal Communication Attribution Theories and Errors Impression Formation Impression Management

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Perceiver Characteristic Familiarity with Target Attitude/Mood Self Concept Target Characteristics Physical Appearance Verbal Communication Nonverbal Cues Intentions Situational Characteristics Interaction Context Strength of Situational Cues BARRIERS SOCIAL PERCEPTION

Barriers in Perception (Social) : 

Barriers in Perception (Social) Halo Effect Stereotyping Selective Perception Similar to me effect First Impression Error Projection

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Knowledge of Predictor Contract Effect

Attribution Theory : 

Attribution Theory Attribution refers to how people explain the cause of another’s or their own behavior. Focuses on why people behave the way they do and what can be done to change their behavior. Attributions can be made about the self or another person. There are certain biases or errors can reduce the accuracy of attributions.

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Attribution determination depends on three factors Distinctiveness Consensus Consistency

Attribution Casual Theory : 

Attribution Casual Theory YES NO YES YES Consistency Does person usually behave this way in this situation? Distinctiveness Does person behave differently in different situations? Consensus Do other behave similarly in this situation? External Attribution Internal Attribution

Frequent Attribution Error : 

Frequent Attribution Error Fundamental Attribution Error : overestimating the personal causes for other’s behavior while underestimating the situational causes Self Serving Bias : attributing personal success to internal factors and personal failure to external factors Actor Observer Effect : tendency to attribute own behaviour mainly to situational causes, but the behaviour of other mainly to internal (dispositional) causes

Impression Management : 

Impression Management It is the process by which people try to manage or control the perceptions formed by other people about themselves. It is referred to as “self presentation” efforts to produce a favourable first impression Self -Enhancement: Other-Enhancement:

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Behavioral Matching Self Promotion Conforming to Situational Norms Appreciating or Flattering Others Being Consistent The target of perception matches his or her behavior to that of the perceiver. A subordinate tries to imitate her boss’s behavior by being modest and soft-spoken because her boss is modest and soft spoken. The target tries to present herself or himself in as positive a light as possible. A worker reminds his boss about his past accomplishments and associates with co-workers who are evaluated highly. The target follows agreed-upon rules for behavior in the organization. A worker stays late every night even if she has completed all of her assignments because staying late is one of the norms of her organization. The target compliments the perceiver. This tactic works best when flattery is not extreme and when it involves a dimension important to the perceiver. A coworker compliments a manager on his excellent handling of a troublesome employee. The target’s beliefs and behaviors are consistent. There is agreement between the target’s verbal and nonverbal behaviors. A subordinate delivering a message to his boss looks the boss straight in the eye and has a sincere expression on his face. Impression Management Tactics

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