Packaging Matrix


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How different criterias help to develop a packaging at different environment


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The Packaging Matrix:

The Packaging Matrix In promotional mix By: Pradyuth Dutta

Types of packaging:

Types of packaging Primary packaging is the material that first envelops the product and holds it. This usually is the smallest unit of distribution or use and is the package which is in direct contact with the contents. Secondary packaging is outside the primary packaging, perhaps used to group primary packages together. Tertiary packaging is used for bulk handling, warehouse storage and transport shipping. The most common form is a palletized unit load that packs tightly into containers. Packaging helps to: • create consumer perceptions of a product’s relative advantage, • attract first time sales • and generate repeat purchases.

Negligence towards packaging:

Negligence towards packaging May cause failure to fully protect the product, over-packaging, failure to attract the consumer for an initial purchase, failure to serve the consumer Decrease shelf life lead to customer dissatisfaction negative word-of-mouth advertising

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Intersection 1- Protection and the human environment   The package can also provide protection in the human environment. Mechanisms for human/protection include things like child resistant closures, and tamper evident features. Child resistant closures have been required on hazardous household substances since the Poison Prevention Packaging Act was enacted in 1970.

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Intersection 2- Protection and the biospheric environment   In the biospheric environment protection; packaging must protect the product from the biosphere (air, light, moisture, temperature, etc.). Several tools are currently available, and new technologies are emerging in this arena. Anti microbial films, materials that retard the growth of microbes, are currently used to extend the shelf life and preserve the freshness of a variety of products. Opaque packages or materials containing ultraviolet (UV) absorbers may be used for products that degrade in the presence of light. “Oxygen scavengers”, items which absorb oxygen as it penetrates the package, may be added to packages containing oxygen sensitive products so that they are protected against oxidative reactions.

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Intersection 3- Protection and the Physical Environment   Protection is bidirectional in nature; the product must be protected from the environment, and the environment must be protected from the product. In the physical environment this may involve protecting the product from shocks, drops and vibration associated with transit and handling during distribution; it may also involve protecting the distribution environment from hazards contained within the package. Adequately protecting the product from damage that occurs during distribution prevents unnecessary loss and provides customers with product that arrives in pristine condition.

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Intersection 4- Communication and the human environment Communication includes text (brand name, directions and warnings, ingredients, nutritional facts, etc.). Information can also be conveyed subtly through material, shape configuration, texture, and color, and product positioning. The combination of all of these variables communicates a complex message that is easily understood. In a very few seconds the package transmits: • product category: dairy pasta, personal care, automotive part, etc. • brand differentiation • values: quality level, home-made, environmentally friendly • origin: import or domestic

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Intersection 5- Communication and the biospheric environment   Time and Temperature Indicators, also called “TTIs” are frequently used by companies that are concerned about temperature and moisture, things that can adversely impact certain products as they travel through distribution. The inappropriate temperature may be communicated through a color change of the indicator, or may require that temperature data be downloaded into a computer and analyzed. In addition to making sure the product has been appropriately handled as it traverses distribution, companies must also communicate to those handling the product appropriate storage conditions. Text with graphics may indicate things like “Keep Frozen”, “Keep Refrigerated”, or “Keep Dry.”

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Intersection 6- Communication and the physical environment Companies that wish to understand the types of shocks that their packages experience during distribution, use accelerometers to collect data about the distribution environment. So that they can make informed decisions about package design (cushions, etc.). Communicating in the physical environment also involves conveying messages to workers throughout distribution about the proper storage and handling of products. These messages are typically textual or graphic. Text messages such as: “Handle with Care”, “Fragile”, and “This Side Up” exemplify these communications with graphics.

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Intersection 7- Utility and the human environment   Utility in the human environment is something that consumers are willing to pay for, and companies are taking notice. Dutch boy began shipping its new “Twist and Pour” container in July of 2002. The “Twist and Pour” moved Dutch Boy from a “wire-handled, metal dinosaur of round cans to a side-handled, spout-pourable, square plastic container” that has garnered rave reviews and “multiple quarters of increased market share”

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Intersection 8- Utility and the biospheric environment Examples of an improvement of biospheric utility are Controlled Atmosphere Packaging (CAP) and Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP). CAP and MAP are technologies that allow us to have fresh produce during the “off season” by carefully controlling the atmosphere surrounding the produce. By modifying the atmosphere surrounding the produce, the respiration rates of the products can be controlled and degradation can be retarded, extending shelf life and allowing products that would not otherwise be feasible to be marketed.

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Intersection 9- Utility and the physical environment   Improving utility in the physical environment involves forethought into the systems and people that will be handling the product/package system throughout distribution. For e.g. sizing shipping cases so that they are not dangerously heavy for workers or providing handles with comfortable grips. Plastic pallets are less prone to splinters and rodent or insect infestation, and are lighter for workers to handle. Using Stretch wrap can keep all palletized loads more stable.


Summary Packaging is ubiquitous but invisible; consumers do not tend to put conscious thought into packaging until they are dissatisfied by its performance. They may not even realize that their dissatisfaction is the result of poor package design; as may be the case with foods with off flavors or drugs that lack efficacy by the time they reach the consumer. Regardless of whether or not consumers realize that poor package design is the problem, once they are dissatisfied, it is not likely that they will purchase and negative word-of-mouth advertising may result. It is important that designers recognize the power of comprehensive package design and the complexities involved. The packaging matrix is one solution that simplifies the myriad of considerations that should be taken into account when considering packaging in your promotional mix.



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