BURNS

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BURNS : 

BURNS Dr PRABAL DUTTA MBBS

Anatomy and Physiology of Skin : 

Anatomy and Physiology of Skin Skin is the largest organ of the body 0.25 sq m in children 1.8 sq m in adults It is also the most exposed organ

Skin Layers : 

Skin Layers Epidermis Tough protective barrier Dermis Contains blood vessels, nerve endings Prevents water loss due to evaporation Prevents loss of body heat

Slide 4: 

TYPES OF BURNS

FIRST DEGREE SUPERFICIAL BURNS : 

FIRST DEGREE SUPERFICIAL BURNS Epidermal layer Pink, painful and edematous Heals 3-5 days w/o scarring Causes: – Flame – Sun – Flash from explosion

SECOND DEGREE SUPERFICIAL BURNS : 

SECOND DEGREE SUPERFICIAL BURNS Epidermis and papillary region of dermis Blisters, bullae, serous fluid Cherry red moist appearing Painful, sensation intact Edematous Heals in 7-28 days with minimal scarring Causes: Contact with flame, flash or hot liquid/ steam (scald)

FIRST AID : 

FIRST AID Cool the burnt area immediately by holding the injured part under cold running water for at least 10 minutes to reduce the pain and to limit the extent of the burn. This will remove the heat from the injury and can help prevent scarring. If this is not possible, plunge the injured part in a bowl of cold water.

FIRST AID : 

FIRST AID 3. Quickly, but carefully, remove any rings, watches, and tight clothing from the injured area before any swelling develops. 4. Protect the injury by placing a sterile dressing over it, large enough to cover the area completely without the dressing sticking to the injury. 5. If there are any blisters, do not attempt to burst them.

FIRST AID : 

FIRST AID Thermal – Stop, drop, and roll Chemical – Dilute chemicals – Remove clothing – Alkalis worse than acids Electrical – Remove from source

Slide 10: 

Head = 9% (18% in child & infant) One hand and arm = 9% Each leg = 18 % (14% in child and infant) Front torso = 18% (9% upper half, 9% lower half) Back torso = 18% (9% upper half, 9% lower half)

SECOND DEGREE DEEP BURNS : 

SECOND DEGREE DEEP BURNS Epidermis and reticular region of dermis Blisters, bullae, serous fluid Pale ivory moist appearing Painful, sensation intact Edematous Heals in 7-28 days with variable scarring Causes: Contact with flame, flash or hot liquid/ steam (scald)

THIRD DEGREEFULL THICKNESS BURNS : 

THIRD DEGREEFULL THICKNESS BURNS Extends into subcutaneous tissue White, yellow & brown leathery appearance Thrombosed vessels & loss of elasticity marked edema Possible escharotomy Painless to touch Requires grafting Causes: prolonged exposure to flame, electricity or chemicals May take 2-3 days to fully present its true depth

FOURTH DEGREE BURNS : 

FOURTH DEGREE BURNS Extends to muscle Loss of function Black, charred appearance May require amputation May require escharotomy and fasciotomy Causes: very prolonged exposure to flame, chemicals and high voltage

Areas of Special Concern : 

Areas of Special Concern Face Ears Hands Feet Joints Perineum

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