economic impact of globlization on woman

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ECONOMIC IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON WOMEN

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ECONOMIC IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON WOMEN :

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON WOMEN Pradeep kuamr yadav I.T.S.ghaziabad

Introduction :

Introduction In the last 30 years women have come a long, long way. Our lives are nobler and richer than they were, but they are also fiendishly difficult...the contradictions women face have never been more bruising than they are now... On every side speechless women endure endless hardship, grief and pain in a world system that creates billions of losers for every handful of winners. Globalization has had such negative consequences for women and children that some commentators argue that 'globalization is a man'. women suffer disproportionately from IMF and World Bank policies as public services are cut and they are forced to care for sick, disabled and older relatives, as well as earn a living which puts them in economic crises. But globalization could equally be a woman. Capitalism's expansion across the globe has depended on a massive influx of tens of millions of women into the workforce who had traditionally been dependent on husbands and male relatives. We will deeply analyze these contradictory impacts of globalization on women

GLOBALISATION ESSENTIALS :

GLOBALISATION ESSENTIALS Globalization is the new buzzword that has come to dominate the world since the nineties of the last century . It is expected to be a major force for prosperity. The essentials of the new economic policy are: a) Privatization b) Globalization c) Modernization d) Improving productivity and grow the rate. The Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAP) undertaken to implement these objectives will require: Reductions in public expenditure, Devaluation , Cutting food and fertilizer subsidies, Dismantling the public distribution system, Reducing budgets for the social sector, Promoting capital-intensive and ‘high-tech' production, Increasing bank rates and insurance charges, Exit policy.

Globalization impact on women:

Globalization impact on women Among the distinct groups of society on whom globalization’s impact has been most telling, women clearly stand out. New circumstances created by SAP for globalization are diverse and encompass all aspects of women’s lives. It has affected both the quantity and the quality of work available to the majority of women at national and global level .

FACTORS AFFECTING IMPACTS OF GLOBALISATION ON WOMEN:

FACTORS AFFECTING IMPACTS OF GLOBALISATION ON WOMEN The extent to which globalization affects women depends on a number of factors such as : education, race, class, sexuality, religion, age, nationality ethnicity but the most important factor of all is education as it has direct economic implication. The bitter truth which cannot be ignored is gender discrimination in education which is the main cause of and has been responsible for a deprived, diminished, discriminated picture of women.

Globalization is a double edged process:

Globalization is a double edged process . On one hand , majority of women find themselves stripped off the benefit of social security, government subsidy, protection of labor rights and safety nets. On the other hand there are possibilities of better education facilities and opportunities at the transnational sense which are very attractive to the privileged few.

GLOBALISATION RESULTS IN [MARKETISATION] :

GLOBALISATION RESULTS IN [MARKETISATION] SAP has lead to emergence of concept of Marketization, “It is the process that enables the state-owned enterprises to act like market-oriented firms. This is achieved through reduction of state subsidies, deregulation, organizational restructuring, decentralization and privatization.” The result of this process is [marketization] The feminization of unemployment; The feminization of poverty; The feminization of hopelessness.

An important trend in marketization is surrogacy:

An important trend in marketization is surrogacy An important trend in marketization is surrogacy ( Social scientists term it a Western exploitation of Indian women for economic reasons) A womb is on rent in India. For a fee of Rs 250, 000 ($6000 ), Indian women, particularly from Gujarat, are the new outsourcing representatives for this increasing popular enterprise. They lease their womb; give birth to babies of childless couples for a price. Unproductive couples from abroad are making a beeline in large numbers for this new Indian outsourcing boom. The couples sign affirmation form; undergo necessary medical checkups, and in-vitro fertilization formalities, then pay Indian women the rental to give birth to their baby. They go back home; chill out for the next nine months, and come back to take the delivery of the baby once the child is ‘made’ or ‘manufactured’. No wonder, Indian surrogacy market has grown to a whopping $500 million a year business . Though this practice is rarely recognised in India, and is seen as ‘immoral’ and ‘unacceptable’ because of country’s ‘ethical’ social order

ECONOMIC IMPACTS ON WOMEN "Life is the art of drawing without an eraser.":

ECONOMIC IMPACTS ON WOMEN "Life is the art of drawing without an eraser." The traditional role of women in livestock animal husbandry, Agriculture, Khadi and village industries including handicrafts, handlooms fisheries, etc, is being undermined because mechanization and automation is becoming prevalent in the market based economy which will adversely affect the village based traditional economy.

Economic impact:

Economic impact : Reduction in regular employment Privatization and reduction of public services has reduced regular employment opportunities for women, the result of globalization is “ contractual employment” which is a refined version of’ irregular, unstable employment” and has adverse economic implication on women. Increase in low and exploitative type of jobs : Any employment opportunity which exists in the newly privatized firms is almost entirely at the bottom of the ladder, tied to looks and youth, or highly exploitative in other ways .the girls cut off age is 31,and she is asked to apply in swim suit.

Economic impact:

Economic impact Some young women are beginning to feel that their only way out is to sell themselves. High school girls proudly cite prostitution as a career possibility .According to a report And young Russian and Eastern European women are taking advantage of the opening of borders to become prostitutes in Turkey, the Netherlands,and possibly China as well (Cowell;Kristol). A very shameful Scenario(Sacrificing women body for economic reasons and for political alliances): According to Kempadoo , the operation of foreign or allied troops produce particular forms of prostitution which has been tolerated and regulated by local government.

Economic impacts:

Economic impacts Occupational sex segregation has become a stark reality in the open economy: Research from many countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America indicates that the impact of market reforms is almost inevitably gender differentiated , and the results for the majority of women are at best mixed, if not uniformly negative . The economic situation has been dete riorating rapidly. This has resulted in worse working condition, lower pay and inferior career opportunities . Although, in some cases they have reached heights but gender inequality still persists

Although, in some cases they have reached heights but gender inequality still persists as the statistics show from the source UN :

Although, in some cases they have reached heights but gender inequality still persists as the statistics show from the source UN

ECONOMIC IMPACTS:

ECONOMIC IMPACTS Curtailment of state provisions in child care, community care and social security. Beginning in January 1992, subsidies for daycare, milk and other dairy products, and children's clothing were either sharply reduced or eliminated. This has increased the dual burden of employment and family responsibilities for women in general. Women found themselves in deep economic crises. Increase in sex tourism: According to Kampadoo (2001), “sex tourism” takes place for the most part in “Exotic” Third World countries as a form of bringing foreign exchange and to sustain the image of their country as an appealing vacation destination. Some of these women are sold as sex slaves in their entry to Western countries while others become the so called "illegal aliens" working as domestic workers or in sweatshops under horrible conditions or work as bar attendants ( all jobs are of lower level with no respect and dignity ) . According to a CIA report in 1999, each year “50,000 of women are brought into the U.S to work in sex industries.

ECONOMIC IMPACTS:

ECONOMIC IMPACTS With male migration on the increase from the rural to urban sectors, the women have to bear the triple burden of caring, farming and paid employment in the rural sector. Open market economy leads to price rise in food and other basic necessities. Women who have to directly deal with family subsistence have to cope with such changes and have to work hard and work for a low paid and exploitative jobs for sustaining in life as she is left with no options. The SAP has forced working women into the unorganized sector and deprived them of their rights which are related with Act which has been passed in their favor These women have almost no control over their work and no chance for upward mobility because of the temporary and repetitive nature of the work as they are mostly working in private sectors. segmentation of laborers on the grounds of gender . T hose in favor argue that working women shoulder the burden of domestic duties as well as remunerative/office work, so a reduction of working hours will give them some relief. This deprives women of promotions and responsible assignments and discriminates against women by projecting them as “supplementary earners”

Economic impacts:

Economic impacts Women is a sufferer economically, physically, mentally, Ethically, Totally stressed out, Play the role of her life ideally, Multiple role, Perfection is always required from her, Responsibilities have reached heights, Never a decision maker but a bread winner and earner. Can earn but cannot spend in her own way,

NEO-COLONOLISM UNDER THE SHAM OF GLOBALIZATION AND ITS IMPACT ON WOMEN:

NEO-COLONOLISM UNDER THE SHAM OF GLOBALIZATION AND ITS IMPACT ON WOMEN This has lead to emergence of neo-colonialism which literally means a system of domination of poorer nations by the richer nations. The main instruments of neo-colonialism are MNCs or transnational corporations. The impact of which on women is as follows .These MNCs operate through their subsidiary companies or in collaboration with their :MNCS enter into food processing and other feminized industries which will lead to reduction in low skilled women labor. they are not committed to highest standards of socially responsible corporate behaviour,their activities are ethically bad and they pay her a very small amount not according to services taken and speechless women accept this as she is economically hard pressed. .

Girl child Labor: Though they are not directly involved in employing child labor their business strategies and profit motives are encouraging the environment which supports the practices of child labor in a big way. Anglo-Dutch consumer goods giant, Unilever, has denied that its policies encourage child labor in India. It said in a statement that it opposes child labor and is going to discuss the issue with anti-child labor campaigners. India Committee Coordinator Gerard Oonk says the committee has already approached Unilever :

Girl child Labor: Though they are not directly involved in employing child labor their business strategies and profit motives are encouraging the environment which supports the practices of child labor in a big way. Anglo-Dutch consumer goods giant, Unilever , has denied that its policies encourage child labor in India. It said in a statement that it opposes child labor and is going to discuss the issue with anti-child labor campaigners . India Committee Coordinator Gerard Oonk says the committee has already approached Unilever " They said they will promote that their Indian partners talk with the MV Foundation (a south India-based child's rights group) and possibly others to contribute to a solution," says Oonk. It has been observed that the farmers prefer to employ girls because they believe that girls are more suited for the work at farms which requires dexterity, concentration and patience. "Also (girls) are supposed to have more 'nimble fingers,'" says Oonk . Employers also say that adult females cannot do this work when they have their monthly periods, as it might harm the crops," he says. The farmers often make the children work harder by bribing them with chocolates or biscuits. Competitions are conducted for fast work, and the prizes given away include hair ribbons or a 'bindi' - an inexpensive adhesive cosmetic dot that Indian women often put on their foreheads. The report stresses that working in fields has an adverse impact on the education and health of the girl child It mentions that six out of ten children are school dropouts, while one in three has never been to school. This has economic implications in future.

Economic impact:

Economic impact Negative impact on women in the areas of education, health, employment, security and even integrity . It degrades the subsistence economy of the people at large which in turn creates unemployment with eroding their traditional skills and knowledge of the very survival of their own. In this context women suffer more than their counterpart. Women gradually loose their own resources, skill and knowledge because of the patent right practices. In the situation of liberalization women will not be in position to continue traditional practices. And ultimately most of the women in developing countries will be marginalized and deprived from their basic base of life consequently leading the society into injustice, unequal, pervasive and unstable.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Pictures of women in a globalied world showing women activism,struggle,

Positive effects of economic globalisation :

On the positive side globalization has contributed to bring about welcome changes in the lives of women who have been able to avail of the opportunities, which have opened up in the various sectors of development. It has also brought great freedom to women , especially those living in traditionally conservative countries like Indonesia, Ireland and Thailand , where women are able for the first time to be economically independent of men and to have at least some choice in their personal lives. Ultimately, by bringing women into the workforce, globalization has given women a power they lacked in the past- -the power to end the system that breeds poverty, exploitation and oppression. Positive effects of economic globalisation

Positive impact on women:

Positive impact on women prospects of higher and quality education have become feasible for those women who can afford them, economically and socially. Employment in technological and other advanced sectors , which have global bearing, has opened up for suitably qualified women. With changing attitude towards women, especially in the urban areas, women enjoy more egalitarian set of gender relationship. Augmentation of women’s movements through exposures at the international level will help bring about major changes in the economic, social and political lives of women. Reduction in gender inequalities will have positive effect on women’s empowerment in the socio-economic context. contributed to the creation of new associations of women and the strengthening of their networks to offer mutual support and resources. In several countries in the region, new information and communications technology (ICT) have improved the access of women to micro credit, employment opportunities and information in general.

Positive impact on women:

Positive impact on women Attitudinal changes towards women’s role in the family due to good education, benefits of family planning and health care, child care, good job opportunities etc. will surely help in the development of more confident and healthy women. Positive approach to economic and cultural migration will facilitate women to be exposed to better prospects at the international level. Globalization has also contributed to the creation of new associations of women and the strengthening of their networks to offer mutual support and resources. In several countries in the region, new information and communications technology (ICT) have improved the access of women to micro credit, employment opportunities and information in general.

IMPACTS:

IMPACTS The extent to which globalization affects women depends on a number of factors such as : education, race, class, sexuality, religion, age, nationality ethnicity but the most important factor of all is education as it has direct economic implication. The bitter truth which cannot be ignored is gender discrimination in education which is the main cause of and has been responsible for a deprived, diminished, discriminated picture of women we have empirical evidence support.

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE:

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE Economic liberalization policies are based on the neoliberal ideology, which currently dominates increasingly integrating world economies. This process affects men and women in different ways globally. globally women’s experiences with the process of globalization are extremely complex and diverse-- both positive and negative.

EMPLOYMENT:

EMPLOYMENT In terms of employment, for example, women all over the world have benefited from this process. The Oxfam report of 8 February 2004,states that in the past 20 years, trade liberalization has created employment for millions of women who now occupy between 60-90% of jobs in the labor-intensive stages of the clothing and food supply chains. In Kenya , 75% of factory workers are women , in Sri Lanka 85% and in Cambodia up to 90% are women (one in five of all 18-25-year-old.Cambodian women have jobs in the garment industry). i

LEVELS OF EMPLOYMENT:

LEVELS OF EMPLOYMENT China’s Guangdong province , four out of five people working in the garment sector are women under 25 (there are 26 million migrant workers in the province). A significant number of the women workers in other countries include: 48 percent in India, 74 percent in the Philippines, and 80 percent in China (Durano 2002). In this regard, economic globalization has opened up niches for women to create opportunities, particularly for their livelihood.

NEGATIVE GLOBAL EFFECTS:

NEGATIVE GLOBAL EFFECTS Despite these benefits, labor market regulations based on the neo-liberal ideology negatively impact on women GLOBALLY. These impacts include among others Feminization Of Labor: There are two kinds of feminization. One is the increased number of women being drawn into the labor force as corporations seek ever cheaper and more docile forms of waged labor. The other refers to the nature of the work experience and that is making jobs temporary, low paid, and flexible and "feminizing" them in the sense that all women's paid work has been low paid and unstable.

Feminization Of Poverty :

Feminization Of Poverty Improvement in vital statistics for many nations in terms of decreased infant mortality, longer life spans, better nutrition, but also large numbers of people thrown into abject poverty and displaced from subsistence agriculture or forced into Volatile and very unstable labor markets. No job security, Terrible working conditions, Demise of state welfare systems

NEGATIVE EFFECTS:

NEGATIVE EFFECTS Abject poverty, more porous borders, great disparities in wages increased migration flows, human trafficking, sex slavery

WRONG PRACTICES OF MNCs:

WRONG PRACTICES OF MNCs According to MNC the best way to earn is to move parts of the production process to poorer countries like India , Sri Lanka , Bangladesh , Indonesia , the Philippines , Thailand , etc. The cheap labor of Asian women is regarded as the most lucrative way to enhance profits. Women in developing countries are a ‘flexible' labor force. Their cheaper labor forms the basis for the induction of women into export industries such as electronics, garments, sports goods, food processing, toys, agro-industries. Women are forced to work uncomplainingly at any allotted task, however dull, laborious, physically harmful or badly paid it may be. A large number of poor women looking for work within the narrow confines of a socially imposed, inequitable demand for labor have become ideal workers in the international division of labor. Globalization is riding on the back of millions of poor women in the margins of the economy.

Suggestions For Taking Action At Country And Global Level To Improve The Position Of Women Economically:

Suggestions For Taking Action At Country And Global Level To Improve The Position Of Women Economically Country level: • Push for the inclusion of all sectors of civil society, particularly women, in the design and application of trade, Fiscal and financial policies. • Conduct economic literacy trainings for women’s advocates, and convene public hearings to ensure that the concerns of women’s economic capacity and rights are taken into account in all national policy making forums • Develop gender-sensitive analysis of national, provincial and local budgets and taxation policies in order to restructure the collection and allocation of public funds towards promoting women’s economic capacities and rights, and engendering governance and leadership • Collect sex-disaggregated data and identify and address gaps in information, including on unpaid work • Build links with women’s groups across all levels—national, regional, and global

Steps at global level:

Steps at global level • Advocate for the primacy of the UN in addressing the lack of institutional democracy and transparency in the Bretton Woods institutions and the WTO , and push for more meaningful involvement of women’s advocates at the UN; • Carry out a gender review (parallel to the WTO Trade; Policy Reviews or TPRs) of bilateral, regional and international trade negotiations and treaties in order to identify; gender biases in terms of access to productive resources, earning levels, job security, workers’ rights and unpaid work burdens • Develop a comprehensive, gender-aware framework that enhances the social impact assessment of financial flows as part of any international financial stability planning

Steps at global level:

Steps at global level • Advocate for a system of mandatory transfers from the richest to the poorest regions of the world to include the CTT, global carbon tax and unitary global tax and ensure that these funds are allocated through the global fund schemes for women’s empowerment and for meeting the needs of poor women. • Advocate for gender-balanced representation and participation of civil society , including women’s groups and networks, in the follow-up mechanisms and activities in the implementation of the Monterrey Consensus A better world is possible !

EDUCATION WORK FOR PREVENTION OF ATROCITIES AGAINST WOMEN WOMAN CREATES LIFE BUT STILL WITHOUT RIGHTS??:

EDUCATION WORK FOR PREVENTION OF ATROCITIES AGAINST WOMEN WOMAN CREATES LIFE BUT STILL WITHOUT RIGHTS?? More work shops; Broadcasting of women rigths; a) Organising through NGOs Parivrik Mahila Lok Adalats throughout the length and breadth of the country on a continuous basis. (b)  Launching of programmes on Legal Awareness; (c)  Sensitisation programmes for police, NGOs, officials for better implementation of safeguards and laws for the benefit of women; (d)  Release and rehabilitation of women prisioners; (e)  Rehabilitation of prostitutes and their children; (f)   Rehabilitation of widows and land support to anti arrack movement.

remedies:

remedies Custodial justice for women prisoners; (h)  Participation of women in the electoral process; and (i)   Issue of violence on Women (j)   Dahej Mukt Abhiyan (k)  Technological Empowerment of Women in Agriculture (l)  Rights of minority Women. We have to make NATIONAL POLICY FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN The thing women have got to learn is that nobody gives you power. You just take it.

conclusion:

conclusion It is only through full understanding of the plight of women in the Globalization process can the government, NGOs, decision makers and information managers prepare proper strategies to empower women and bring them into the mainstream developmental process to derive the best fruits of globalisation which is a step always forward no looking back, an inevitable eventuality

PowerPoint Presentation:

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