THE INDIAN PATENTS ACT 1970 : THE INDIAN PATENTS ACT 1970 Dept. of Industrial Policy & Promotion M/o Commerce and Industry Department of Pharmaceutical Scieces Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar university, Lucknow Presented By : Pradeep Khinchi M. Pharm. ( Sem III) Contents ……: Contents …… Introduction The Indian Patent Act 1970 Chapters Amendments (2005) Introduction: Introduction Slide 4: Patent….. Patent word from Latin : patere - “to lay open” (to make it available for public inspection) Patent is a grant from the government A guarantee for a limited period of time The required privilege for Making Selling Using the invention Why I go for getting a patent??: Why I go for getting a patent?? To enjoy the exclusive rights over the invention To ensure commercial returns To enjoy the exclusive rights over the invention To ensure commercial returns To ensure commercial returns To protect my invention & proceedings Slide 6: Why patent is necessary ? To encourage research and development Induces an inventor to disclose his invention Stimulate capital investment affects economy Encourages technology development Encourages establishment of new industries Slide 7: To protect the creativity of individual To protect their invention from being copied To reward the inventor NEED OF PATENT COPY Slide 8: Patent Grant Procedure Filing of patent application Publication after 18 months Pre Grant Opposition / Representation by any person. Request for examination Examination: Grant or Refusal Publication of Grant of patent Post Grant Opposition to grant of patent (Constitution of Opposition Board) Early Publication Decision By Controller The Indian Patent Act 1970: The Indian Patent Act 1970 Slide 10: 1856 Protection of invention 1911 Indian patents & designs act 1972 Patents act (act 39 of 1970) – only process patents | 14 year, 5 year (food/drug) 1975 India joins WIPO 1999 India signs TRIPS (after joining WTO) 1999, 2002, 2004, 2005 Amendments Product patents | 20 years patent period Journey of…. …. Indian Patent System Slide 11: The Indian Patent Act, 1970 The Indian legislation which control the patents system In India the grant of patents is governed by the patent act 1970 and rules 1972 which is operative in the whole of India Slide 12: Chapters CHAPTER I : CHAPTER I PRELIMINARY Short title, extent and commencement . This Act may be called the Patents Act, 1970. It extends to the whole of India. It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette Contd... Slide 14: Definitions and interpretation . Assignee includes the legal representative of a deceased inventor. Invention means any new and useful- ( i ) art, process, method or manner of manufacture (ii) machine, apparatus or other article (iii) substance produced by manufacture, and includes any new and useful improvement of any of them, and an alleged invention Legal Representative means a person who in law represents the estate of a deceased person Contd... Slide 15: Patentee means the person for the time being entered on the register as the grantee or proprietor of the patent True And First Inventor does not include either the first importer of an invention into India, or a person to whom an invention is first communicated from outside India CHAPTER II: INVENTIONS NOT PATENTABLE : Invention or Discovery just a theory, or based on known theory, arrangement or rearrangement in a known way based on traditional knowledge related to atomic energy injurious to public health contrary to natural laws CHAPTER II: INVENTIONS NOT PATENTABLE Slide 17: A method for Agriculture Horticulture Human health related Contd….. CHAPTER III : CHAPTER III APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS Contd... Slide 19: Form of application Provisional and complete specifications complete specifications within 12 months (3 months relaxation after the permission of controller but have to pay a prescribed fee). Contents of specifications Provisional : Title & idea of invention Complete : title, full description, its utility, scope, diagram, abstract etc. Priority dates of claims first to file (in India) first to document (in USA) CHAPTER IV : CHAPTER IV EXAMINATION OF APPLICATIONS Examination of application : after submission of complete specifications. Search for anticipation by previous publication and by prior claim : It is the duty of examiner to check applications Consideration of report of Examiner by Controller : Controller analyse it and make gist of objection, send to applicant & provide prescribed time to him to eradicate these objections. Contd... Slide 21: Power of Controller to refuse or require amended applications in certain cases to make orders respecting division of application to make orders respecting dating of application in cases of anticipation in case of potential infringement to make orders regarding substitution of applicants, etc. Contd... Slide 22: Time for putting application in order for acceptance An application for a patent shall be deemed to have been abandoned unless within fifteen months from the date on which the first statement of objections to the applicant by the Controller. Acceptance of complete specification: within 12 months from the date of filing of provisional application Advertisement of acceptance of complete specification CHAPTER IVA : CHAPTER IVA EXCLUSIVE MARKETING RIGHTS Application for grant of exclusive rights: To sell or distribute article or substance in India (made in prescribed form and on payment of fees) . CHAPTER V : CHAPTER V OPPOSITION TO GRANT OF PATENT Opposition to grant of patent: four months from date of advertisement of acceptance of complete specification (1 month may exceed) In cases of "obtaining" Controller may treat application as application of opponent Refusal of patent without opposition : its all depends on controller. Mention of inventor as such in patent CHAPTER VI :
CHAPTER VI ANTICIPATION previous publication previous
to Government public display, etc. public working use and publication after provisional specification
CHAPTER VII : CHAPTER VII PROVISIONS FOR SECRECY OF CERTAIN INVENTIONS To inventions relevant for defence purposes Secrecy directions to be periodically reviewed: within 9 months (extend period of 3 months) by central govt. Consequences of secrecy directions : central govt. provide him reward/payment CHAPTER VIII : CHAPTER VIII GRANT AND SEALING OF PATENTS AND RIGHTS CONFERRED THEREBY Grant and sealing of patent: the application has been opposed and the opposition has been finally decided in favour of the applicant Amendment of patent granted to deceased applicant the Controller is satisfied that the person to whom the patent was granted had died before the patent was sealed, the Controller may amend the patent by substituting for the name of that person the name of the person to whom the patent ought to have been granted. Contd... Slide 28: Date of patent every patent shall be dated as of the date on which the complete specification was filed Form, extent and effect of patent Every patent shall be in the prescribed form and shall have effect throughout India. A patent shall be granted for one invention only: Contd... Slide 29: Grant of patents to be subject to certain conditions any machine, apparatus or other article, process, medicine & drug. Rights of patentee to make, use, exercise, sell or distribute the invention Rights of co-owners of patents Where a patent is granted to two or more persons, each of those persons shall be entitled to an equal undivided share in the patent. use, exercise and sell the patented invention for his own benefit without accounting to the other person or persons. Term of patent 5 years- for food, drugs & medicine. 14 yrs – for all other inventions (methods &/or processes) CHAPTER IX : CHAPTER IX PATENTS OF ADDITION Patents of addition any improvement in or modification of an invention which is not present in complete specification Terms of patents of addition- equal to the term of patents for the main invention. CHAPTER X : CHAPTER X AMENDMENT OF APPLICATIONS AND SPECIFICATIONS Amendment of application and specification before Controller: Every application for leave to amend an application for a patent or a specification under this section made after the acceptance of the complete specification and the nature of the proposed amendment shall be advertised in the prescribed manner. Amendment of specification before High Court Where an application for an order under this section is made to the High Court, the applicant shall give notice of the application to the Controller and the Controller shall be entitled to appear and be heard, and shall appear if so directed by the High Court. CHAPTER XI : CHAPTER XI RESTORATION OF LAPSED PATENTS Applications for restoration of lapsed patents The patentee or his legal representative, and where the patent was held by two or more persons jointly, then with the leave of the Controller, one or more of them without joining the others, may, within one year from the date on which the patent ceased to have effect, make an application for the restoration of the patent . Rights of patentees of lapsed patents which have been restored . Same right as given to original patentee. CHAPTER XII : CHAPTER XII SURRENDER AND REVOCATION OF PATENTS Surrender of patents A patentee may, at any time by giving notice in the prescribed manner to the Controller, offer to surrender his patent. Revocation of patents in public interest Where the Central Government is of opinion that a patent or the mode in which it is exercised is mischievous to the State or generally prejudicial to the public, it may, after giving the patentee an opportunity to be heard, make a declaration to that effect in the Official Gazette and thereupon the patent shall be deemed to be revoked. CHAPTER XIII : CHAPTER XIII REGISTER OF PATENTS Register of patents and particulars to be entered therein the names and addresses of grantees of patents; notifications of assignments and of transmissions of patents, of licences under patents, and of amendments, and revocations of patents; Assignments, etc., not to be valid unless in writing and registered Person or persons registered as grantee or proprietor of patent Register shall be the prim face evidence of any matter required or authorized by or under this act. Contd... Slide 35: Register to be open for inspection the register shall at all convenient times be open to inspection by the public; and certified copies, sealed with the seal of the patent office, of any entry in the register shall be given to any person requiring them on payment of the prescribed fee. CHAPTER XIV : CHAPTER XIV PATENT OFFICE AND ITS ESTABLISHMENT Patent office and its branches : kolkata (H.O) Branches: Delhi, Mumbai,Chennai . Restriction on employees of patent office as to right or interest in patents All officers and employees of the patent office shall be incapable, during the period for which they hold their appointments, to acquire or take, directly or indirectly any right or interest in any patent issued by that office. CHAPTER XV: CHAPTER XV POWERS OF CONTROLLER GENERALLY Controller have certain powers of a civil court Examining patentee. Awarding cost Issuing commission for examination of witness of document Requiring the discovery and production of any document To correct clerical error in a patent or application of patent or other specification Give final decision if there is any opposition on a specification filed, then heard both of one and decide the case. Give extension of time in different provisions. : WORKING OF PATENTS, COMPULSORY LICENCES, LICENCES OF RIGHT AND REVOCATION Definitions of "patented articles" and " patentee ”. "patented article" and "patented process" mean respectively an article or process in respect of which a patent is in force General principles applicable to working of patented inventions To encourage inventions. Have commercial utility in India. CHAPTER XVI Contd … Slide 39: Compulsory licences At any time after the expiration of three years from the date of the sealing of a patent, any person interested may make an application to the Controller alleging at the reasonable requirements of the public with respect to the patented invention have not been satisfied or that the patented invention is not available to the public at a reasonable price and praying for the grant of a compulsory licence to work the patented invention. Contd … Slide 40: General purposes for granting compulsory licences the patented inventions are worked on a commercial scale in India without undue delay and to the fullest extent that is reasonably practicable. the interests of any persons for the time being working or developing an invention in India under the protection of a patent are not unfairly prejudiced. Terms and conditions of compulsory licences the royalty and other remuneration , if any, reserved to the patentee or other person beneficially entitled to the patent. the patented invention is worked to the fullest extent by the person to whom the licence is granted and with reasonable profit to him. the patented articles are made available to the public at reasonable prices. Contd … Slide 41: Matters to be taken into account in granting compulsory licences the nature of the invention, the time which has elapsed since the sealing of the patent and the measures already taken by the patentee or any licensee to make full use of the invention. the ability of the applicant to work the invention to the public advantage. Contd... Slide 42: Endorsement of patent with the words "Licences of right“ At any time after the expiration of three years from the date of the sealing of a patent, the Central Government may make an application to the Controller for an order that the patent may be endorsed with the words "licences of right" on the ground that the reasonable requirements of the public with respect to the patented invention have not been satisfied or that the patented invention is not available to the public at a reasonable price . Contd … Slide 43: Certain patents deemed to be endorsed with the words "Licences of right" substances used or capable of being used as food or as medicine or drug; the methods of processes for the manufacture or production of any such substances the methods of processes for the manufacture or production of chemical substances (including alloys, optical glass, semi-conductors and inter-metallic compounds) : USE OF INVENTIONS FOR PURPOSES OF GOVERNMENT AND ACQUISITION OF INVENTIONS BY CENTRAL GOVERNMENT Meaning of use of invention for purposes of Government an invention is said to be used for the purposes of government if it is made, used, exercised or vended for the purposes of the Central Government, a State Government or a government undertaking. CHAPTER XVII Contd … Slide 45: Power of Central Government to use inventions for purposes of Government Where an invention has, before the priority date of the relevant claim of the complete specification, otherwise than in consequence of the communication of the invention directly or indirectly, by the patentee or by a person from whom he derives title, any use of the invention by the Central Government or any person authorised in writing by it for the purposes of government may be made free of any royalty or other remuneration to the patentee. Contd … Slide 46: Acquisition of inventions and patents by the Central Government The Central Government may, if satisfied that it is necessary that an invention which is the subject of an application for a patent or a patent should be acquired from the applicant or the patentee for a public purpose, publish a notification to that effect in the Official Gazette, and thereupon the invention or patent and all rights in respect of the invention or patent shall, by force of this section, stand transferred to and be vested in the Central Government. : SUITS CONCERNING INFRINGEMENT OF PATENTS Power of court to make declaration as to non-infringement any person may institute a suit for a declaration that the use by him of any process, or the making, use or sale of any article by him does not, or would not, constitute an infringement of a claim of a patent against the patentee or the holder of an exclusive licence under the patent. Power of court to grant relief in cases of groundless threats of infringement proceedings Where any person threatens any other person by circulars or advertisements or by communications, oral or in writing addressed to that or any other person, with proceedings for infringement of a patent, any person aggrieved thereby may bring a suit against him CHAPTER XVIII : APPEALS Every appeal under this section shall be in writing and shall be made within three months from the date of the decision. Procedure for hearing of appeals Every such appeal shall be heard by a single judge of the High Court. Every such appeal shall be heard as expeditiously as possible and endeavour shall be made to decide the appeal within a period of twelve months from the date on which it is filed. CHAPTER XIX Chapter XX- OFFENCES AND PENALTIES: Chapter XX- OFFENCES AND PENALTIES OFFENCES PENALTIES Contravention of secrecy provisions relating to certain inventions imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both. Falsification of entries in register, etc. ----- do ----- Unauthorised claim of patent rights punishable with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees. Wrongful use of words, "patent office" imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine, or with both. Refusal or failure to supply information ----- do ----- Practice by non-registered patent agents fine which may extend to Rs.500 in the case of a first offence and Rs.2000 in the case of subsequent offence. Offences by companies If the person committing an offence under this Act is a company offence shall be deemed to be guilty and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly Slide 50: CHAPTER XXI: PATENT AGENTS Register of patent agents The Controller shall maintain a register . Contains names and addresses of all persons . Qualifications for registration as patent agents Citizen of India; He has completed the age of 21 years; Has a degree from any Indian university or equivalent. Is an advocate within the meaning of the advocates act, 1961. Has passed the qualifying examination prescribed for the purpose;. He has paid such fee as may be prescribed. Contd.. Slide 51: Restrictions on practice as patent agents If he is not registered. No company or other body corporate shall practise, describe itself or hold itself out as patent agents or permit itself to be so described or held out Contd.. Slide 52: Removal from register of patent agents and restoration by error on account of misrepresentation or suppression of material fact that he has been convicted of any offence and sentenced to a term of imprisonment or has been guilty of misconduct . The Central Govt. may, on application and on sufficient cause being shown, restore to the register the name of any person removed there from. Slide 53: Power of Controller to refuse to deal with certain agents any individual whose name has been removed from, and not restored to, the register. any person who has been convicted of an offence . any person, not being registered as a patent agent, who in the opinion of the Controller is engaged wholly or mainly in acting as agent in applying for patents in India . CHAPTER XXII : CHAPTER XXII Budapest Treaty 2001 World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Paris Convention 1998 World Trade Organization (WTO) 1995 Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) 1998 INTERNATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS CHAPTER XXIII : CHAPTER XXIII MISCELLANEOUS Avoidance of certain restrictive conditions Fees Restrictions upon publication of specifications Reports of Examiners to be confidential Publication of patented inventions Power of Controller to call for information from patentees Evidence of entries, documents, etc. Service of notices, etc., by post Security for costs Contd.. Slide 56: Transmission of copies of specifications, etc., and inspection thereof. Information relating to patents Loss or destruction of patents Reports of Controller to be placed before parliament Power of High Courts to make rules Power of Central Government to make rules Slide 57: Amendments An overview of amendments (2005): An overview of amendments (2005) Product Patent New use of existing pharma product Patentability of software EMRs eliminated Oppositions Compulsory licensing Infringements Mail-box application Contd.. Slide 59: Pharmaceutical substances Fast track granting introduced Indian filing compulsory Time period of request for examination reduced Time period for examination and grant reduced Revision of fees Slide 60: Thanks ...