water pollution

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Earth's Water :

Earth's Water Earth is the "watery planet". Viewed from space it is predominantly blue, as 74 % of its surface is covered by water. Oceans contain 97 % of the earth's water while the remaining 3 % is classified as freshwater . 77% percent of this surface freshwater is stored as ice and 22% as groundwater and soil moisture. The remaining freshwater, making up less than 1 % of the world total, is contained in lakes, rivers and wetlands.


WATER BASICS Different types of water in general Ocean Water: The vast majority of water on the planet is the salt water in the oceans and seas. Fresh Surface Water: This is the fresh water in rivers, streams, lakes, ponds and similar bodies of water. (Almost all of these contain fresh water, though a few lakes contain salty water.) Technically, the world's ice caps and glaciers also fall into this category , and actually contain very, very large amounts of fresh water. Groundwater: The majority of the planet's liquid freshwater is stored underground. Water that enters underground levels remains there for an average of 1,400 years!

Water pollution :

Water pollution Two broad categories of water pollution : “Point source” occurs when harmful substances are emitted directly into a body of water. An example of a point source of water pollution is a pipe from an industrial facility discharging effluent directly into a river. “Nonpoint source” delivers pollutants indirectly through transport or environmental change. An example of a nonpoint-source of water pollution is when fertilizer from a farm field is carried into a stream by rain (i.e. run-off).

Specific categories of water pollution :

Specific categories of water pollution Pesticides : Pesticides that get applied to farm fields and roadsides—and homeowners' lawns—run off into local streams and rivers or drain down into groundwater, contaminating the fresh water that fish swim in and the water we humans drink.

Specific categories of water pollution:

Specific categories of water pollution Fertilizers / Nutrient Pollution Many causes of pollution, including sewage, manure, and chemical fertilizers, contain "nutrients" such as nitrates and phosphates. Deposition of atmospheric nitrogen (from nitrogen oxides) also causes nutrient-type water pollution. In excess levels, nutrients over-stimulate the growth of aquatic plants and algae

Specific categories of water pollution:

Specific categories of water pollution Oil, Gasoline and Additives Oil spills cause major water pollution and problems for local wildlife, fishermen, and coastal businesses Beyond catastrophic oil spills, land-based petroleum pollution is carried into waterways by rainwater runoff. Shipping and offshore drillings are non-spill sources of oil pollution in water gasoline and gas additives, leaking storage tanks are a big problem. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that about 100,000 gasoline storage tanks are leaking chemicals into groundwater.

Specific categories of water pollution:

Specific categories of water pollution Mining The mining process exposes heavy metals and sulfur compounds that were previously locked away in the earth. Rainwater leaches these compounds out of the exposed earth, resulting in "acid mine drainage" and heavy metal pollution that can continue long after the mining operations have ceased. Rainwater falling on piles of mining waste (tailings) transfers pollution to freshwater supplies. In the case of gold mining, cyanide is intentionally poured on piles of mined rock (a leach heap) to chemically extract the gold from the ore. Some of the cyanide ultimately finds its way into nearby water. Huge pools of mining waste "slurry" are often stored behind containment dams. If a dam leaks or bursts, water pollution is guaranteed.

Specific categories of water pollution:

Specific categories of water pollution Sediment When forests are "clear cut," the root systems that previously held soil in place die and sediment is free to run off into nearby streams, rivers, and lakes. Thus, not only does clearcutting have serious effects on plant and animal biodiversity in the forest, the increased amount of sediment running off the land into nearby bodies of water seriously affects fish and other aquatic life. Poor farming practices that leave soil exposed to the elements also contribute to sediment pollution in water.

Specific categories of water pollution:

Specific categories of water pollution Chemical and Industrial Processes Lack of proper effluent treatment plant Radioactive elements

Specific categories of water pollution:

Specific categories of water pollution Plastic Plastics and other plastic-like substances (such as nylon from fishing nets and lines) can entangle fish, sea turtles, and marine mammals, causing pain, injury, and even death. Plastic that has broken down into micro-particles is now being ingested by tiny marine organisms and is moving up the marine food chain. Sea creatures that are killed by plastic readily decompose. The plastic does not—it remains in the ecosystem to kill again and again.

Specific categories of water pollution:

Specific categories of water pollution Personal Care Products, Household Cleaning Products, and Pharmaceuticals: Laundry detergent, bleach, or fabric softener; stain remover; hair dye or mouthwash; antibacterial soap or hand lotion all of it goes down the drain when we do laundry, wash our hands, brush our teeth, bathe, or do any of the other myriad things that incidentally use household water. Unfortunately, most wastewater treatment facilities are not equipped to filter out personal care products, household products, and pharmaceuticals, and a large portion of the chemicals passes right into the local waterway that accepts the treatment plant's supposedly clean effluent.

Specific categories of water pollution:

Specific categories of water pollution Sewage In developing countries, an estimated 90% of wastewater is discharged directly into rivers and streams without treatment Leaking septic tanks and other sources of sewage can cause groundwater and stream contamination.

Water pollution effects :

Water pollution effects Waterborne Infectious Diseases Human infectious diseases are among the most serious effects of water pollution Water-based diseases are somewhat similar to water-borne diseases but are not typically an effect of water pollution. They come from infectious agents that naturally spend part of their life cycles in water

Water pollution effects:

Water pollution effects Nutrient Pollution Most widespread, chronic environmental problem in the coastal ocean. Stimulates harmful overgrowths of algae Overgrowths of toxic algae result in "harmful algal blooms," which are more colloquially referred to as "red tides" or "brown tides." Nutrient-pollution-driven blooms of non-toxic algae and seaweed can also cause problems by reducing water clarity, making it hard for marine animals to find food and blocking the sunlight needed by sea grasses, which serve as nurseries for many important fish species. Can trigger unusual outbreaks of fish diseases.

Water pollution effects:

Water pollution effects Chemical Contamination Chemical water pollution typically occurs because ... the chemicals were dumped into the water intentionally; the chemicals seeped into groundwater, streams, or rivers because of failing pipes or storage tanks; the chemicals catastrophically contaminated waterways because of industrial accidents; the pollution settled out of polluted air (or was precipitated out of polluted air); or chemicals were leached out of contaminated soil.

Water pollution effects:

Water pollution effects Categories of water pollution effects related to chemicals: Pesticides Oil and Petroleum Chemicals Mercury

Water pollution effects:

Water pollution effects Mining There are a number of negative water-pollution effects from mining operations: Acid mine drainage Spills and leaks Mountaintop Removal Mining

Water pollution effects:

Water pollution effects Marine Debris Is basically trash in the ocean Includes escaped inland trash and garbage thrown overboard by ships and boaters—plastic bottles and bags etc Plastics effect on marine food chain. Marine animals can swallow the trash items, which often look similar to prey they would normally eat For instance, sea turtles will eat a plastic bag believing it to be a jellyfish. The bag can cause an intestinal blockage and sometimes death.

Water pollution effects:

Water pollution effects Thermal Pollution Fish and other organisms adapted to a particular temperature range can be killed from thermal shock, and the extra heat may disrupt spawning or kill young fish. Warmer water temperatures lower the dissolved oxygen content of the water.

Water pollution effects:

Water pollution effects Noise Pollution Noise pollution" from ship engines and sonar systems make it difficult for marine mammals like whales, dolphins, and porpoises to communicate, find food, and avoid hazards. Frequent or chronic exposure to both high- and low-intensity sounds may cause stress on all higher forms of marine life, potentially affecting growth, reproduction, and ability to resist disease.

Water Pollution Solutions :

Water Pollution Solutions Reducing Nutrient and Pesticide Pollution Reducing Sewage Pollution Improving Storm Water Management and Watershed Monitoring Stopping Deforestation Opposing Coastal Development Reducing Pollution from Oil and Petroleum Liquids Reducing Mercury Emissions

Water Pollution Solutions:

Water Pollution Solutions Cleaning Up Mining Practices Cleaning Up Chemical Pollution Miscellaneous Solutions to Water Pollution Legal



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