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Example: Hybrid Integrated Circuits HIC, IC, Transistor, TRIACs, LED, Passive Component Passive electronic components are electronic devices that allow electrical current to flow in either direction and do not amplify the signal. Example: Resistors, Capacitors, Inductors, and Diodes (Special Cases) Slide 3: Basic Electronics Atom Structure Click here to know how atom structure works Slide 4: Basic Electronics Atom Structure Electrons Electrons are the smallest and lightest of the particles in an atom. Electrons are in constant motion as they circle around the nucleus of that atom. Electrons are said to have a negative charge, which means that they seem to be surrounded by a kind of invisible force field. This is called an electrostatic field. Protons Protons are much larger and heavier than electrons. Protons have a positive electrical charge. This positively charged electrostatic field is exactly the same strength as the electrostatic field in an electron, but it is opposite in polarity. Notice the negative electron (pictured at the top left) and the positive proton (pictured at the right) have the same number of force field lines in each of the diagrams. In other words, the proton is exactly as positive as the electron is negative. Slide 5: Basic Electronics Review Points Electrons have a negative electrostatic charge and protons have a positive electrostatic charge. A good way to remember what charge protons have is to remember both proton and positive charge start with "P." Like charges repel, unlike charges attract, just like with magnets. Slide 6: Basic Electronics Valence shell In the copper atom pictured above that the outside shell has only one electron. This represents that the copper atom has one electron that is near the outer portion of the atom. The outer shell of any atom is called the valence shell. When the valence electron in any atom gains sufficient energy from some outside force, it can break away from the parent atom and become what is called a free electron. The valence shell is the outer shell of the atom. Some materials have a free electron in their valence shell and this electron can easily move from atom to atom. The free electrons are responsible for electrical current. Slide 7: Basic Electronics Valence shell Click here to see how electrons flow in wire Click here to see How free electron flows in hydrozen atom Click here to see How free electron flows in helium atom Slide 8: Basic Electronics Conductor, Insulator, Semiconductor Conductor Copper is considered to be a conductor because it “conducts” the electron current or flow of electrons fairly easily. Most metals are considered to be good conductors of electrical current. Copper is just one of the more popular materials that is used for conductors. Other materials that are sometimes used as conductors are silver, gold, and aluminum. Copper is still the most popular material used for wires because it is a very good conductor of electrical current and it is fairly inexpensive when compared to gold and silver. Aluminum and most other metals do not conduct electricity quite as good as copper. Click here to see how electrons flow in a conductor Slide 9: Basic Electronics Conductor, Insulator, Semiconductor Insulator Insulators are materials that have just the opposite effect on the flow of electrons. They do not let electrons flow very easily from one atom to another. Insulators are materials whose atoms have tightly bound electrons. These electrons are not free to roam around and be shared by neighboring atoms. Some common insulator materials are glass, plastic, rubber, air, and wood. Slide 10: Basic Electronics Conductor, Insulator, Semiconductor Conductor and Insulator Slide 11: Basic Electronics Conductor, Insulator, Semiconductor Semiconductor A semiconductor is a material that has electrical conductivity between those of a conductor and an insulator; it can vary over that wide range either permanently or dynamically. Semiconductors are essential in electronic technology. Semiconductor devices, electronic components made of semiconductor materials, are essential in modern consumer electronics, including computers, mobile phones, and digital audio players. Silicon is used to create most semiconductors commercially. Dozens of other materials are used. Slide 12: Basic Electronics Voltage and Current Voltage it is the force that makes electrons move in a certain direction within a conductor. There are many sources of EMF. Some of the more common ones are: batteries, generators, and photovoltaic cells, just to name a few. EMF is electromotive force. EMF causes the electrons to move in a particular direction. EMF is measured in units called volts. Slide 13: Basic Electronics Voltage and Current Current This movement of electrons between atoms is called electrical current. Electricity is a word used to describe the directional flow of electrons between atoms. The directional movement of electrons between atoms is called electrical current. Click here to know how current flow in a circuit The flow of electrons is measured in units called amperes. The term amps is often used for short. An amp is the amount of electrical current that exists when a number of electrons, having one coulomb (ku`-lum) of charge, move past a given point in one second. A coulomb is the charge carried by 6.25 x 10^18 electrons. 6.25 x 10^18 is scientific notation for 6,250,000,000,000,000,000. That is a lot of electrons moving past a given point in one second! Click here to know how what is ampere. Slide 14: Basic Electronics Voltage and Current Types of Current There are two types of electric current: Direct current (DC) The electrons in direct current flow in one direction. The current produced by a battery is direct current. Alternating current (AC). The electrons in alternating current flow in one direction, then in the opposite direction—over and over again. In the United States, the current flow alternates 120 times per second. (In Europe it alternates 100 times per second.) The current supplied to your home by the local utility is alternating current. Click here to know how DC and AC flows Slide 15: Basic Electronics AC & DC Current AC Current DC Current Slide 16: Basic Electronics Voltage and Current Slide 17: Basic Electronics Voltage and Current Measurement Voltage Measurement Slide 18: Basic Electronics Voltage and Current Measurement Voltage Measurement Slide 19: Basic Electronics Voltage and Current Measurement Voltage Measurement You can only test voltage when the ciruit is powered If there is no voltage coming in (power supply) then there will be no voltage in the circuit to test! It must be plugged in (even if it doesn't seem to be working) Voltage is always measured between two points There is no way to measure voltage with only one probe, it is like trying to check continuity with only one probe. You must have two probes in the circuit. If you are told to test at a point or read the voltage at this or that location what it really means is that you should put the negative (reference, ground, black) probe at ground (which you must determine by a schematic or somewhere else in the instructions) and the positive (red) probe at the point you would like to measure. If you're getting odd readings, use a reference voltage (even a 9V battery is a reasonable one) to check your voltage readings. Old meter batteries and wonky meters are the bane of your existence but they will eventually strike! Good places to take reference voltages are regulated wall plugs such as those for cell phones. Two meters might also be good :) Voltage is directional If you measure a battery with the red/positive probe on the black/negative contact and the black probe on the positive contact you will read a negative voltage. If you are reading a negative voltage in your ciruit and you're nearly positive (ha!) that this cannot be, then make sure you are putting the black probe on the reference voltage (usually ground) DC voltage and AC voltage are very different Make sure you are testing the right kind of voltage. This may require pressing a mode button or changing the dial. Unless otherwise indicated, assume DC voltages Slide 20: Basic Electronics Current Measurement Voltage and Current Measurement Instructions Current is the measure of the rate of electron "flow" in a circuit. It is measured in the unit of the Ampere, simply called "Amp," (A). The most common way to measure current in a circuit is to break the circuit open and insert an "ammeter" in series (in-line) with the circuit so that all electrons flowing through the circuit also have to go through the meter. Because measuring current in this manner requires the meter be made part of the circuit, it is a more difficult type of measurement to make than either voltage or resistance. Slide 21: Basic Electronics Generations of Computer or Electronics First Generation - 1940-1956: Vacuum Tubes ENIAC: 18,000 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resistors and 5 million soldered joints Slide 22: Basic Electronics Generations of Computer or Electronics Second Generation - 1956-1963: Transistors Second generation computers replaced vacuum tubes with transistors Slide 23: Basic Electronics Generations of Computer or Electronics Third Generation - 1964-1971: Integrated Circuits The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers. Slide 24: Basic Electronics Generations of Computer or Electronics Fourth Generation - 1971-Present: Microprocessors The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer - from the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls - on a single chip. Slide 25: Basic Electronics Generations of Computer or Electronics Fifth Generation - Present and Beyond: Artificial Intelligence Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality. Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come. The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization. Slide 26: Basic Electronics RESISTANCE Resistance is the property of a component which restricts the flow of electric current. Energy is used up as the voltage across the component drives the current through it and this energy appears as heat in the component. Resistance is measured in ohms, the symbol for ohm is an omega . 1 ohm is quite small for electronics so resistances are often given in k ohm and M ohm. 1 k = 1000 ohm 1 M = 1000000 ohm . Resistance is the opposition to electrical current. Resistance is measured in units called ohms. Resistance is sometimes desirable and sometimes undesirable Slide 27: Basic Electronics RESISTANCE Types of Resistance Fixed Resistors Carbon film resistors Metal film resistors Fusable Resistance Wire Wound Resistance SMT Resistance Variable Resistors CDS Elements Thermistor ( Thermally sensitive resistor ) Other Resistors Slide 28: Basic Electronics RESISTANCE Carbon film resistors Carbon composition resistors consist of a solid cylindrical resistive element with embedded wire leads or metal end caps to which the lead wires are attached From the top of the photograph1/8W1/4W1/2W Slide 29: Basic Electronics RESISTANCE Resistance Color Coding Slide 30: Basic Electronics RESISTANCE Resistance Color Coding You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.