MELTING GLACIERS : MELTING GLACIERS PRESENTED BY PRABHJIT SINGH
4939 What is Glacier ? : What is Glacier ? A glacier is a huge block of solid ice that is formed over the years by falling snow.
Even though a glacier is solid ice, it is constantly moving, though very slowly. Glaciers could move from a few inches to a few feet a day. Melting Glaciers : Melting Glaciers The melting of glaciers is a natural process. But now with increase in the temperature of earth these glaciers are melting very fastly. As a result of this unbalance in nature the level of sea water is increasing. Reasons of global warmingGreen house effect : Reasons of global warmingGreen house effect Effects Of Melting Ice Glaciers : Effects Of Melting Ice Glaciers Global Warming.
Temperatures across the globe have gone upward, helping the cause of ice glaciers melting faster than required. In certain places across the world small ice glaciers have totally vanished, exposing the earth below. Ice glaciers are able to deflect almost 80% heat of the sun, absorbing approximately 20% heat. This figure gets reversed when sunlight falls on earth, 80% is absorbed and only 20% is deflected back. This in turn helps in increasing global temperatures. This leads to an increase in the temperature of sea water. Icebergs melt faster. Added to this is the expansion of sea water, leading to a rise in sea water levels. Pollution : Pollution Only America is responsible for 25% pollution in the world, global warming and then melting of glaciers. Fresh water shortage. : Fresh water shortage. When seen from outer space, the earth looks self-sufficient in its need for water; in reality it is just the reverse. Almost all this water seen from space is salt water; unfit for human use. Just over 2% of this water is freshwater that is fit for human use; and over 70% of this 2% make-up the earths glaciers. Many on earth depend on the melting water from glaciers for their fresh water supply through lakes and rivers. The melted water gets renewed as ice on the glacier through a process known as precipitation. In many parts of the world this is the 'only' source of fresh water supply throughout the year. An ever-increasing human population and a rapidly decreasing glacier mass will lead to severe fresh water shortage in the near future Reducing agriculture output. : Reducing agriculture output. Agriculture that depends solely on rain will be mostly unaffected by the effects of ice glaciers melting. Such areas are very few worldwide and do not contribute to the major chunk of farmland. Areas affected will be those that depend on water emanating from ice glaciers. During the dry seasons there will be a shortage of fresh water from ice glaciers, making the land dry and unsuitable for agriculture. Total agricultural output will reduce, leading to a shortage of foodgrains. Shortage of Electricity : Shortage of Electricity There are many places across the planet that depend solely on the constant flow of water from melting glaciers for the production of electricity. Once this flow of water is reduced or stops, the production of electricity will stop too. Different sources to produce electricity, most of them that will pollute the earth, and possibly even help increase global warming. Rise in Sea-level : Rise in Sea-level A lot of water that melts on sea-level glaciers gets emptied directly into the sea. The sea level is rising constantly at a rate of approximately 1mm to 2mm per year. The effects of this will be of unimaginable magnitude. Coastal regions across the globe will have to relocate due to flooding, soil erosion, and contamination of underground fresh water with salt water. Animal, Bird, and Fish Habitat Loss : Animal, Bird, and Fish Habitat Loss There are many animals, birds, and fish that depend solely on glaciers for survival. Certain animals need the temperatures of glaciers for survival. Some bird species depend on fish that are found in fresh melting waters of a glacier. With an increase in sea water temperature, and rising sea levels, sea-plants that these fish thrive on will be lost, reducing the number of fish, which in-turn will make survival of many bird species difficult. Coral Reefs will Vanish : Coral Reefs will Vanish Corals require sunlight for photosynthesis to survive and thrive. As the sea level rises, enough sunlight will not reach these corals, deteriorating their quality and even possibly killing them in time. Fish that depend on these corals for food will not survive. This will have an effect on the people who fish for survival in these areas. Earth Will Get Re contaminated : Earth Will Get Re contaminated Many today would never have heard of DDT and many such pesticides that were banned worldwide years ago. Most of the pesticides got airborne and were finally deposited in cool areas containing glaciers. Up to a few years ago, these harmful chemicals remained trapped in the layers of glaciers. Rapid melting of these glaciers is now releasing these chemicals back into the environment, in many lakes and rivers formed by these melting glaciers. Solutions : Solutions Humankind has become dependent on the burning of fossil fuels to support our way of life, but it increases global warming and melting of glaciers at an unnatural rate. Decrease Carbon footprints : Decrease Carbon footprints To restore the glaciers we need to utilize alternative energy sources, increase our energy efficiency and decrease our individual carbon footprints. Kyoto Protocol : Kyoto Protocol The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC), aimed at fighting global warming. The UNFCCC is an international environmental treaty with the goal of achieving "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.
The Protocol was initially adopted on 11 December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan and entered into force on 16 February 2005. As of November 2009, 187 states have signed and ratified the protocol Use Alternative Energy Sources : Use Alternative Energy Sources There are many alternative energy technologies available.
Solar panels are made up of solar cells that trap the heat from the sun and convert it into energy.
Wind turbines are towers that use the kinetic energy from the wind to generate power.
Geothermal energy utilizes the heat from inside the earth. Slide 18: Biofuels such as ethanol can be produced in your back yard by fermenting and mixing vegetable, fruit and grain waste; ethanol is used to make biodiesel fuel, a clean burning fuel for diesel engines.
Electric cars are battery-powered instead of relying of the highly polluting internal combustion engine; hydrogen fuel cells are being developed for these batteries.
Tidal and wave power utilize the massive power of the ocean by harnessing the energy with generators placed on the ocean floor.