bhilama

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It is known as bhallatak in India and was called "marking nut" by Europeans, because it was used by washermen to mark cloth and clothing before washing, as it imparted a water insoluble mark to the cloth. It is a native of India and is closely related to the cashew. It is a plant well-known for its medicinal value in Ayurvedic and Siddha system of medicine. Its nuts contain a variety of biologically active compounds such as biflavonoid, phenolic compounds, bhilawanols, minerals, vitamins and amino acids. A variety of nut extract preparations from this source are effective against many diseases, viz., arthritis, tumours, infections and so on..

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Prepared by Prashant Patel Final year B.pharm S.K.C.O.P. SARSA BHILAMA Guided by Mrs.Rashmi Godani Mrs.Jaya Patel ( Departement of Pharmacognosy )

Pictures of Bhilama::

Plant Pictures of Bhilama: Fruits

Synonyms::

It is known as bhallatak in India and was called "marking nut" by Europeans, because it was used by washermen to mark cloth and clothing before washing, as it imparted a water insoluble mark to the cloth. in Sanskrit : अग्निमुख ,Antahsattva, Arusharah, Aruskara, Arzohita,Viravrksa, Visasya. in Hindi : भल्लातक , भिलावा ,Bhela , Bhelwa, Bhilawa , Bhilwa. in English : Indian Marking Nut Tree, Marsh Nut, Oriental Cashew Nut. in Gujarati : Bhilamu, Bhilama . Synonyms:

Biological Source: :

It consists of mature fruit of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. (Family: Anacardiaceae ) , a medium sized tree found in moist deciduous forests all over the country. Biological Source: Geographical Source: Globally the species is distributed in the Pale tropics, from Tropical Asia to Australia . Within India it is distributed in the Sub-Himalayan tracts , Central , Peninsular and Eastern regions of the country. The plant is found in abundance in Bihar , Bengal and Orissa .

Introduction:

It is a native of India and is closely related to the cashew. It is a plant well-known for its medicinal value in Ayurvedic and Siddha system of medicine. Its nuts contain a variety of biologically active compounds such as biflavonoid , phenolic compounds, bhilawanols , minerals , vitamins and amino acids . A variety of nut extract preparations from this source are effective against many diseases, viz., arthritis , tumours , infections and so on.. Introduction

Macroscopy::

bark : grey in colour and exudes an irritant secretion on incising. leaves : 30-60 cm long and 12-30 cm broad. , glabrous above and pubescent beneath. flowers : greenish white , in panicles. Fruits : l aterally flattened , drupaceous , dark brown , nut 2.5-3 cm long , obliquely ovoid , smooth , shining with residual receptacle. sweet and astringent in taste Macroscopy:

Microscopy::

Pericarp :differentiated into epicarp , mesocarp and endocarp . Epicarp :In l.S. pericarp shows outer epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermal cells - elongated radially and lignified . characteristic glands found in pericarp which exude oil globules and arise as small protuberances in epicarp. (Continue…) Microscopy:

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mesocarp : Due to pressure exerted by cells of mesocarp, some of epidermal cells and cuticle rupture and oil globules exude from oil glands. very broad zone, 30-40 layers thick, composed mostly of parenchymatous cells having lysigenous cavities .they do not have any special lining and contain an acrid and irritant yellowish oily secretion. and fibro-vascular bundles, below epidermis a few outer cells of parenchyma smaller as compared to rest. Rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in parenchymatous cells

Chemical constituents::

Main:bhilwanols, phenolic compounds, biflavonoids, sterols and glycosides. Chemical constituents:

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Biflavonoids (Nut shells) Biflavones A, C, A1, A2, B( tetrahydromentoflavone ), Tetrahydrorobustaflavone , Semecarpuflavone , Anacarduflavone , Jeediflavone , Gulluflavone . Oil from nuts Bhilawanol,mixture of cis and Trans isomers of ursuhenol , contains a mixture of phenolic compounds mainly of 1,2- dihydroxy-3 (pentadecadienyl-8, 11) benzene and 1,2- dihydroxy-3 (pentadecadienyl-8', 11’)- benzene.

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Others constituents : Vitamins, Valine, catechol, Stearic acid, Palmitic acid, cardol, Semecarpol, semecarpetin, Nallaflavanone, Anacardol, semecarpuflavanone, anacardic acid.

Pharmacology: :

A) Antiatherogenic effect: Cause of atherosclerosis: imbalance between the prooxidants and antioxidants It shows such antioxidant property. It has capacity to scavenge the super oxide and hydroxyl radicals at low concentrations. its antioxidant , anticoagulant , hypolipidemic , platelet anti-aggregation and lipoprotein lipase releasing properties make it antiatherogenic . Pharmacology:

B)Neuroprotective Activity: :

B)Neuroprotective Activity: Semecarpus anacardium is shown to be Neuroprotective especially to the hippocampus region in stress-induced neurodegenereation like Alzheimer’s disease Loss of cholinergic cells , particularly in the basal forebrain is accompanied by the loss of neurotransmitter Ach. It is effective in prolonging the half-life of acetylcholine through inhibition of AchE . It is known to be useful in treating cognitive decline, improving memory or related CNS activity.

C)Antispermatogenic effect: :

Extract of Bhilama feeding caused Antispermatogenic effect evidenced by reduction in numbers of spermatogenesis cells and spermatozoa. Reduction in sperm density may be due to changes in the androgen metabolism . The principal cells of epididymis synthesize proteins, which have important role in maturation of spermatozoa. Alterations in the secretion and function of these proteins impaired sperm maturation . C)Antispermatogenic effect:

D)Anti-carcinogenic activity::

SA nut extract for inhibitory effect on human breast cancer cells. Bhilama administration to leukemic animals resulted in clearance of the leukemic cells from the bone marrow and internal organs . D)Anti-carcinogenic activity:

E)Anti microbial effect::

The petroleum ether and aqueous extract fractions showed inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus , Shigella flexneri . chloroform extract showed inhibition against Bacillus licheniformis , Vibrio cholerae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , the ethanol extract showed inhibition to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and S. aureus . E)Anti microbial effect:

F)Anti inflammatory activity::

Semecarpus anacardium significantly decreased the carrageenan -induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma . These results indicate the potent antiinflammatory effect and therapeutic efficacy of Bhilama Nut extract against all phases of inflammation is comparable to that of indomethacin . F)Anti inflammatory activity:

Marketed preparations::

Dhanvantara ghrita Kalyana ksara Narasimha ghrita rasayana Panchanimbadi churna Panhatiktaguggulu ghrita Sri bahusalo guda Bhallatakasava Bhallataka taila Bhallataka ksirapaka and ksara Tiladi modaka Bhallataka modaka Amrtabhallatakavaleha Sanjivani guti etc. Marketed preparations: