What is Automation

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What is Automation

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Slide 1: 

MARUDHAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE BIKANER Presented By :- TAPESH RAM PRASAD 4 Th YEAR

What is Automation ?: 

What is Automation ? Automation is basically the delegation of human control function to technical equipment for Increasing Productivity Increasing Quality Reducing Cost Increasing Safety in working conditions

Slide 3: 

Productivity Quality Labour Cost Plant Total Automation Manufacturing Competitiveness Solution Why Automation required in Industry

History of Automation: 

History of Automation Pneumatic Control Hard wired logic Control Electronic Control using Logic Gates Programmable Logic Controller Manual Control

Manual Control: 

Manual Control All the actions related to process control are taken by the operators Drawbacks Likely human errors and consequently its effect on quality of final product The production, safety, energy consumption and usage of raw material are all subject to the correctness and accuracy of human action.

Pneumatic Control: 

Pneumatic Control Industrial automation, with its machine and process control, had its origin in the 1920s with the advent of "Pneumatic Controllers". Actions were controlled by a simple manipulation of pneumatic valves, which in turn were controlled by relays and switches. Drawbacks Bulky and Complex System Involves lot of rework to implement control logic Longer project time

Hard wired logic control: 

Hard wired logic control The contactor and Relays together with hardware timers and counters were used in achieving the desired level of automation Drawbacks Bulky panels Complex wiring Longer project time Difficult maintenance and troubleshooting

Electronic Control using Logic Gates: 

Electronic Control using Logic Gates In 1960s with the advent of electronics, the logic gates started replacing the relays and auxiliary contactors in the control circuits. The hardware timers & counters were replaced by electronic timers Advantages Drawbacks Reduced space requirements Energy saving Less maintenance & greater reliability Changes in control logic not possible More project time

Programsmble Logic Controllers: 

Programsmble Logic Controllers Instead of achieving the desired control or automation through physical wiring of control devices, in PLC it is achieved through a program or say software. CPU Power Supply I/O Modules

COMPONENTS OF AUTOMATION: 

COMPONENTS OF AUTOMATION HARDWARE(PLC,SLC,DCS) SOFTWARE(SCDADA) INSTRUMENTS(ANALOG AND DIGITAL)

DEFINATION OF PLC: 

DEFINATION OF PLC PLC means Programmable Logic Controller. It is a class of industrially hardened devices that provides hardware interface for input sensors and output control element. The field I/p include element like limit switches, sensors, push button and the final control elements like actuator, solenoid/control valves, drives, hooters etc. PLC Senses the input through I/p modules, Processes the logic through CPU and memory and gives output through output module. TYPES OF PLC: 1.BASED ON PHYSIACAL ASSEMBLY 2.BASED ON NUMBER OF INPUT AND OUTPUT 3.BASED ON MEMORY CAPACITY

1.BASED ON PHYSIACAL ASSEMBLY : 

1.BASED ON PHYSIACAL ASSEMBLY Compact Compact+Modular Modular 2.BASED ON NUMBER OF INPUT ANDOUTPUT Small Medium Large 3. BASED ON MEMORY CAPACITY 8K 16K 32K

TYPES OF COMMNUCATION CABLE:: 

TYPES OF COMMNUCATION CABLE: 1.HM02 2.CPO3 3.PMO2 COMMNUCATION SOFTWARE : RS LINX PROGRAMMING SOFTWARE : RSLOGIX 500

CATLOG NUMBER OF PLC:: 

CATLOG NUMBER OF PLC : 1761-L-16-BWA BULLETIN NUMBER CONTROLLER NO. OF INPUT AND OUTPUT B=DIGITAL INPUT A=ANALOG INPUT W=RELAY OUTPUT D=DIRECT OUTPUT T=TRIAC OUTPUTT A=AC POWER(240V) B=DC POWER(24V)

SCAN CYCLE OF PLC: 

SCAN CYCLE OF PLC

PROGRAMMING LANGAUGE IN PLC: 

PROGRAMMING LANGAUGE IN PLC Ladder Logic (LD) Statement List (STL) Functional Block Diagram (FBD) Sequential Foundation Chart (SFC) Instruction List (IL) etc.

INSTRUCTION IN PLC:: 

INSTRUCTION IN PLC: (OTL):-- (L)--- (OUT):-- (U)--- (OSR):- [OSR]- (XIO):- |/| (XIC):- | | -

ADRESSING OF PLC:: 

ADRESSING OF PLC: I:0.0/0 I/P SLOT ADRESS WORD ADRESS BIT ADRESS

TIMERS IN PLC:: 

TIMERS IN PLC: TON – (Timer ON delay) TOF – (Timer OFF delay) RTO – (Retentive Timer)

ADVANTAGES OF PLCS: 

ADVANTAGES OF PLCS Reduced space Energy saving Ease of maintenance Economical Greater life & reliability Tremendous flexibility Shorter project time Easier storage, archiving and documentation

Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition Software: 

Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition Software Features of typical SCADA software Dynamic process graphic Real-time and Historical trending Alarms Recipe Management Security Device connectivity Script for logic development Database connectivity

Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition Software: 

Features of typical SCADA software Dynamic process graphic Real-time and Historical trending Alarms Recipe Management Security Device connectivity Script for logic development Database connectivity Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition Software

Dynamic Process Graphics: 

Dynamic Process Graphics Using this feature, one can develop graphics which can resemble the plant. The graphics can include Reactors, valves, pumps, agitators, conveyors as well as other equipment and machinery used in the plant. The status of the equipment running / stopped can be shown using different colours / animation. Typically the SCADA software will have many ready to use symbols for proper representation which can be used in any type of industry.

Real-time & Historical Trends: 

Real-time & Historical Trends This facility is used for representing the data in graphical form. Typically the trends plots the value with reference to the time Real-time data will plot the real-time value for fixed period of time while historical data will have historical data stored value which can be viewed on demand.. Depending upon the storing capacity of the hard-disk one can specify the no of days the data can be stored Some SCADA software show real-time and historical trends in single graphics while fewrs use separate tools.

Alarms: 

Alarms Every plant needs proper monitoring and control of the process parameters. Alarms represent warnings of process conditions that could cause problems, and require an operator response Generally alarms are implemented by using the lamps or hooters in field but in SCADA it can be represented using animation. In many SCADA software, four type of alarm limits are used ie HI, HIHI, LOW, LOW LOW

Recipe Management: 

Recipe Management In many cases we use the same plant for manufacturing different product range. For example an oil blending plant can manufacture power oil, transformer oil, automobile oil. The recipe management is facility used for maintain various recipes of different products and implement it on the process. The recipe can be stored in a single server and it can be fetched by any client server from any area to run the process.

Security: 

Security Every SCADA software has various levels of security for securing the application by avoiding unauthorised access. Depending upon the access level given the operator / engineers is allowed to do the task. In most of the cases, operators are allowed only to operate the plant while maintenance engineers can do the application modifications. The security can be given for individual as well as for groups.

Device Connectivity : 

Device Connectivity Every control hardware has its own communication protocol for communicating with different hadrware / software. Some of the leading communication protocol include Modbus, Profibus, Ethernet, Dh +, DH 485, Devicenet, Control net. The SCADA software needs device driver software for communication with PLC or other control hardware. More the driver software available better is the device connectivity. Most of the SCADA software used in the industry have connectivity with most of the leading control system.

Database Connectivity: 

Database Connectivity In many plants, it is important to download the real-time information to the MIS. In this case the database connectivity is must. Many SCADA software don’t have their own database. Hence for storage and reporting they use third party database like MS Access or SQL

Scripts: 

Scripts Script is a way of writing logic in SCADA software. Every SCADA software has its own instructions and way of writing program. Using scripts, one can develop complex applications. You can create your own functions to suit the process requirement. execution. Various types of scripts make project execution simpler for programmer.

Networking: 

Networking In many application, we have to use more than one SCADA software / operator stations. This can be achieved by taking the SCADA node on network. In many cases Ethernet TCP/IP is commonly used for networking. In certain cases the SCADA software use propriety networking protocols for networking.

Some of the Leading SCADA Software: 

Some of the Leading SCADA Software Wonderware : InTouch Intellution : Fix DMACS Merz : Aspic Allen Bradley : Rsview Siemens : WinCC GE Fanuc : Cimplicity KPIT : ASTRA

Role of Engineers In Industrial Automation: 

Role of Engineers In Industrial Automation Designing of the Automation system Erection and Commissioning Application Engineering Maintenance and Troubleshooting of existing system