Founders and Pioneers of Modern 3D Computer Graphics

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Founders and Pioneers of Modern 3D Computer Graphics

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Founders and Pioneers of Modern 3D Computer Graphics :

Founders and Pioneers of Modern 3D Computer Graphics

Introduction -:

Introduction - Artificial Intelligence (AI) research has made staggering advances recently, including many publicly-visible developments in web search, image recognition, conversational agents, and robotics. These developments have stoked fear about Artificial Intelligence’s effect on many aspects of society. In the context of art, news media hype presents new image and video creation algorithms as if they are automating the creation of art. On the other hand, when I have informally asked friends or colleagues the question of whether computers can create art, the answer is sometimes a decisive “No .” Art requires human intent, inspiration, a desire to express something. Thus, by definition, there is no such thing as art created by a computer... why would anyone worry? The concepts of art and inspiration are often spoken of in mystical terms, something special and primal beyond the realm of science and technology; as if humans can only create art because only humans have “souls.” Surely, there should be a more scientific explanation.

How photography became an art form -:

How photography became an art form - “From today, painting is dead!” — Paul Delaroche, painter, at a demonstration of the daguerreotype in 18391 For lessons from the past about AI and art, perhaps no invention is more significant than photography.2 Prior to the invention of photography, realistic images of the world could only be produced by artists . In today’s world, we are so swamped with images that it is hard to imagine just how special and unique it must have felt to see a skillfully-executed realistic painting . The technical skills of realism were inseparable from other creative aspects. This changed when photography automated the task of producing images of the real world. In1839,the first two commercially-practical photographic processes were invented : Louis Jacques- Mand’e Daguerre’s dagguereotype, and William Henry Fox Talbot’s negative-positive process. They were mainly presented as ways to produce practical records of the world . Of the two, the daguerreotype was more popular for several decades, because Talbot’s process was restricted by patents. Improvements to Talbot’s method eventually made the daguerreotype obsolete and evolved into modern film processes .

How photography became an art form -:

How photography became an art form -

How photography became an art form -:

How photography became an art form -

3D computer animation: a collaboration -:

3D computer animation : a collaboration - 3D computer animation as an artform was pioneered by pixar animation studios, and that success is due to the close collaboration of artists and engineers. It all began with ed catmull, an animation enthusiast who received a PhD in computer science in 1974. In his thesis , he invented several core techniques that every major 3d computer graphics system uses During his time in graduate school, he quietly set a goal for himself: to make the world’s first computer-animated film. Consequently, he founded the graphics group at lucasfilm computer division, and hired a team of brilliant engineers to invent computer systems to be used for film-making. However, none of this group could animate, that is, bring a character to life through movement. Hence, they recruited john lasseter, an animator trained deeply in the Disney tradition.

3D computer animation: a collaboration -:

3D computer animation: a collaboration -

Procedural artwork -:

Procedural artwork - In the art world, there is a long tradition of procedural artwork. Jean Arp created artworks governed by laws of chance in the 1910s, and, beginning in the 1950s, John Cage used random rules to compose music. The term “Generative Art” appears to have originatedinthe1960s. SolLe Witt’s wall drawings are provided as lists of precise instructions ; people are still drawing new versions of his paintings after his death. Starting in the 1970’s , classically-trained painter Harold Cohen began exhibiting paintings generated by a program he wrote called AARON. Since the 1980s, many current artists, such as Karl Sims, Scott Snibbe, Golan Levin, Scott Draves, and Jason Salavon, create abstract artworks by writing computer programs that generate either static images, or create interactive artistic experiences and installation works. In Sims’ and Draves’ work, the art work “evolves” according to audience input . The popularity of the Processing computer language for artists speaks to the growth of procedural art.

Procedural artwork -:

Procedural artwork -

State of the art in computer science research - :

State of the art in computer science research - Recent developments in computational artistic image synthesis are quite spectacular. But they should not be mistaken for AI artists. Non-Photorealistic Rendering (NPR) is a subfield of computer graphics research that I have worked in for many years. NPR research develops new algorithms and artistic tools for creating images inspired by the look of a conventional media, such as painting or drawing. Paul Haeberli’s groundbreaking 1990 paper introduced a paint program that began with a user-selected photograph . When ever the user clicked on the canvas, the system placed a brush stroke with color and orientation based on the photograph. In this way, a user could quickly create a simple painting without any particular technical skill. In a follow-up paper, Pete Litwinowcz automated the process entirely, by placing brush strokes on a grid. My own first research paper arose from experimenting with modifications to his algorithm: the method that I came up with creates long, curved strokes, beginning with large strokes that were then refined by small details. The algorithm was inspired by my experience with real painting, and the way artists often start from a rough sketch and then refine it.

State of the art in computer science research - :

State of the art in computer science research -

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