BIODIVERSITY IN INDIA

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AN INTRODUCTION TO BIODIVERSITY OF INDIA..IN HINDI LANGUAGE

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By: solomonedwards (53 month(s) ago)

please may i get a copy on my email. the presentation is well explained. continue helping nature. solomon.edwards50@yahoo.com

By: menpa (33 month(s) ago)

if u get a copy do send it to mnpa1019@gmail.com too. thanks in advance.

 

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WORKSHOP ON BIODIVERSITY AT CHHINDWADA M.P. INDIA DATED 20.10.2010 : 

WORKSHOP ON BIODIVERSITY AT CHHINDWADA M.P. INDIA DATED 20.10.2010 PRESENTATION BY --- P.N.MISHRA ADDL.D.F.OSAUSAR CHHINDWADA INDIA. LANGUAGE--HINDI

Slide 2: 

tSo fofo/krk ij dk;Z'kkyk fnukad 20@02@2010 izLrqfr }kjk %& e/; izns'k 'kklu ou foHkkx ou o`Rr fNUnokM+k ih- ,u- feJk vij oueaMy vf/kdkjh lkSalj

Slide 3: 

tSo fofo/krk ,d ifjp; tSo fofo/krk D;k gS \ tSo fofo/krk dk v/;;u bruk egRoiw.kZ D;ksa gS \ tSo fofo/krk ladV D;k gS \\ ge tSo fofo/krk laj{k.k dSls dj ldrs gS \\\

tSo fofo/krk (Bio-diversity) : 

tSo fofo/krk (Bio-diversity) tSo $ fofo/krk lHkh thfor iztkfr;kWa (Species), muds vuqokaf’kd inkFkZ vkSj mudh ikfjfLFkfrdh Refers to the numbers, variety and variability of living organisms and ecosystem. Includes all terrestrial, marine and other aquatic organisms. Covers diversity within species, between species as well as variations among ecosystems.

tSo fofo/krk ds Lrj : 

tSo fofo/krk ds Lrj ikfjfLFkdh; fofo/krk (Ecological diversity) iztkrh; fofo/krk (Species diversity) vuqokaf’kd fofo/krk (Genetic diversity)

ikfjfLFkfrdh iz.kkyh esa fofo/krk (Ecological diversity) : 

ikfjfLFkfrdh iz.kkyh esa fofo/krk (Ecological diversity) dksbZ ikfjfLFkfrdh iz.kkyh thoksa ¼ikS/kksa] izkf.k;ksa vkSj lw{e tho½ dk ,d lewg gksrk gS tks ,d nwljs ij vkSj vius i;kZoj.k ds thfor vkSj e`r rRoksa ij vkfJr gksrk gS rFkk mu ij izHkko Hkh Mkyrk gSA ¼tSls& gok] feV~Vh] ikuh] [kfut vkfn½ taxy] ?kkl ds eSnku] ufn;k] >hys vkfn fofo/k ikfjfLFkfrdh iz.kkfy;kaW gSA different habitats, niches, species interactions

iztkrh; fofo/krk (Species diversity) : 

iztkrh; fofo/krk (Species diversity) izR;sd iztkfr dk nwljh iztkfr ls vyx gksuk ekuo] yaxwj lky] djat] uhe vyx&vyx iztkfr;kWa different kinds of organisms, relationships among species

vuqokaf’kd tSo fofo/krk (Genetic diversity) : 

vuqokaf’kd tSo fofo/krk (Genetic diversity) thu (gene) ;k xq.klw=ksa (DNA) dh fofo/krk ,d iztkfr ds Hkhrj ih<+h nj ih<+h fdlh Hkh iztkfr ds Hkhrj ikbZ tkus okyh fofo/krk different genes & combinations of genes

ekuo ds thfor jgus ds fy;s tSo fofo/krk : 

ekuo ds thfor jgus ds fy;s tSo fofo/krk tSo fofo/krk gekjs thou ds gj igyw dks Nwrh gSA thfor jgus ds fy;s vukt vkJ; diM+s dyk vkSj /keZ ls feyus okys mRlkgdkjh rRo

tSo fofo/krk dk vkfFkZd ewY; : 

tSo fofo/krk dk vkfFkZd ewY; [kk| lqj{kk & iwjh nqfu;k esa vukt ds fy;s ikS/kksa dh 7000 iztkfr;kWa dsoy 30 iztkfr;ksa ls dqy Hkkstu dk 90% Hkkx iwjk gks tkrk gSA

tSo fofo/krk dk vkfFkZd ewY; : 

tSo fofo/krk dk vkfFkZd ewY; lsgr vkSj LokLF; ykHk & bUlkuksa] i'kq/ku ,oa ikS/kksa dh lsgr dh lqj{kk 80% ikjaifjd vk;qosZfnd nokvksa dk fuekZ.k] fofHkUu vkS"k/kh; iztkfr ds ikS/kksa ls ,yksiSFkh rFkk gksfe;kiSFkh nok;sa Hkh

tSo fofo/krk dk vkfFkZd ewY; : 

tSo fofo/krk dk vkfFkZd ewY; lsgr vkSj LokLF; ykHk & vk/kqfud fpfdRlk iz.kkyh esa 21 ,slh nok;sa gS tks dsoy ikS/kksa ls gh izkIr gks ldrh gSA vkS"k/kh; ikS/kk fQfyisUMqyk myesfj;k ( filipendula ulmaria) ls fudyus okyh ,fLijhu] fludksuk isM+ dh Nky ls fudyus okyh dquSu

tSo fofo/krk dk vkfFkZd ewY; : 

tSo fofo/krk dk vkfFkZd ewY; js'ks & dikl] twV] ukfj;y ds js'ks] ckal ,oa vU; ?kkls dnjrh js'kksa ds L=ksar LFkkuh; vFkZO;oLFkk ,oa m|ksxksa esa mi;ksx jfLl;kWa] dkxt] diM+s cukus esa] fuekZ.k ,oa iWafdax lkexzh ds fy;s cksjs] fxuhcSx] xyhpksa ds Lrj

tSo fofo/krk dk vkfFkZd ewY; : 

tSo fofo/krk dk vkfFkZd ewY; Geo-textile esa & js'kksa ls cus tky ,oa fxzM dk mi;ksx lM+dks] ugjksa] cka/kksa] ca/kkuksa ds fuekZ.k esa] Hkw>j.k ,oa Hkw&L[kyu ls igkfM+;ksa dh <kykuksa dks cpkus ds fy;s tSo ;k ck;ks Mhty & djat] tVjksQk xUuk] eDdk Hkou fuekZ.k lkexzh &

tSo fofo/krk dk vkfFkZd ewY; : 

tSo fofo/krk dk vkfFkZd ewY; i;ZVu & fofHkUu us'kuy ikdZ ,oa vH;kj.k esa i;ZVu osV yS.M {ks=ksa esa i;ZVu

tSo fofo/krk dk ikfjfLFkfrdh; ewY; : 

tSo fofo/krk dk ikfjfLFkfrdh; ewY; iztkfr;ksa dh ijLij fuHkZjrk Hkkstu] ijkx.k] chtksa dk izlkj.k gsrq Hkkstu J`[kayk (Food Chain)] Hkkstu tky (Food Web) vkSj ikfjLFkfrdh iz.kkyh (Eco System) esa gj iztkfr dh Hkwfedk

tSo fofo/krk dk ikfjfLFkfrdh; ewY; : 

tSo fofo/krk dk ikfjfLFkfrdh; ewY; izkd`frd pØ ds vax ds :i esa tSo fofo/krk dk ewY; ty pØ (Hydrological cycle) Hkw&jklk;fud pØ (Geo-chemical cycle) vkstksu pØ (Ozone cycle)

tSo fofo/krk dk ikfjfLFkfrdh; ewY; : 

tSo fofo/krk dk ikfjfLFkfrdh; ewY; ukbVªkstu pØ (N- cycle)

tSo fofo/krk dk ikfjfLFkfrdh; ewY; : 

tSo fofo/krk dk ikfjfLFkfrdh; ewY; ouLifr;ksa }kjk izdk'k la'ys"k.k ds nkSjku dkcZu Mk; vkDlkbM dk fLFkjhdj.k feV~Vh ,oa ty laj{k.k esa tSo fofo/krk Co2 pØ (Co2- cycle) dkcZu pØ (C- cycle) ok;qeaMy dh xSlksa dk larqyu

tSo fofo/krk dk lkSan;Z cks/kd ewY; : 

tSo fofo/krk dk lkSan;Z cks/kd ewY; izR;sd iztkfr vkSj ikfjfLFkfrdh iz.kkyh i`Foh ij thou dh le`f) vkSj lqUnjrk dks c<+kus esa lgk;d ,d ckj izkd`frd ikfjfLFkfrdh iz.kkyh u"V gksus ij nksckjk fuekZ.k vlaHko izd`fr dk vkuan] igkfM+;ksa] cxhpksa] taxyh bykdksa esa leqnz ij Mqcrs lwjt dks ns[kus dk vkuan] Nykax ekjrs fgj.k ds n`';] fpfM+;ksa ds dyjo] igyh ckfj'k ds ckn /kjrh dh lqxa/k

tSo fofo/krk dk /kkfeZd] vk/;kfRed vkSj lkaLd`frd ewY; : 

tSo fofo/krk dk /kkfeZd] vk/;kfRed vkSj lkaLd`frd ewY; Hkkjr esa dbZ ikS/kksa vkSj tkuojksa dk laca/k /keZ o vk/;Re ls eafnj esa p<+k;s tkus okys 'kqHk Qwy tklkSu ds Qwy& dkyh nsoh dks] /krwjs ds Qwy f'ko dks dbZ ikS/ksa ,oa tkuoj nsoh nsorkvksa ls lacaf/kr Hkkjr rFkk vU; ns'kksa esa & dqN [kkl taxyksa] ljksojks] ufn;ksa] Hkw[k.Mksa dks ifo= ekU;rk

Hkkjr esa tSo fofo/krk dh fLFkfr : 

Hkkjr esa tSo fofo/krk dh fLFkfr Hkkjr esa nqfu;k ds 12 fojkV&fofo/krk (megadiversity) okys ns'kksa esa ls ,d Hkkjr esa ikS/kksa dh 45 gtkj oU; iztkfr;ka izkf.k;ksa dh 77 gtkj oU; iztkfr;ka Qlyksa dh 166 iztkfr;ka vukt dh 51 iztkfr;ka Qyksa dh 104 iztkfr;ka elkyksa dh 27 iztkfr;ka lfCt;ksa vkSj nkyksa dh 55 iztkfr;ka js'ksnkj Qlyksa dh 24 iztkfr;ka ns'kh i'kq/ku & eosf'k;ksa dh 27 uLysa] HksM+ksa dh 40] cdjksa dh 22 uLys

fojkV & fofo/krk (mega diversity) okys ns'k : 

fojkV & fofo/krk (mega diversity) okys ns'k ¼1½ vesfjdk ¼2½ czkthy ¼3½ phu ¼4½ dksyafc;k ¼5½ dkaxks ¼6½ bDokMksj ¼7½ Hkkjr ¼8½ bUMksusf'k;k ¼9½ esMkxkLdj ¼10½ is: ¼11½ esfDldks ¼12½ vkLVsªfy;k

BIODIVERSITY IN INDIA : 

BIODIVERSITY IN INDIA Thar desert - The climate and vegetation in this area is a contrast to the Himalayan region. Western Ghats - One of the two biodiversity hotspots in India. Sunder bans - The largest mangrove forest in India. Chilika - This wetland area is protected under the Ramsar convention. Himalayas - This  majestic range of mountains is the home of a diverse range of  flora and fauna. Eastern Himalayas is one of the two biodiversity hotspots in India.

e/;izns'k esa tSo fofo/krk : 

e/;izns'k esa tSo fofo/krk e-iz- esa dbZ izdkj dh ikfjfLFkfrdh; iz.kkfy;ka (Ecosystems) ekyok dk iBkj] iwohZ ioZrh; {ks=] lriqM+k dk e/; ioZrh; {ks=] foU/; dk e/; ioZrh; {ks= lriqM+k ioZr Jsf.k;ksa ds ?kus taxyksa esa & 283 fdLe ds ikS/kksa dh iztkfr;ka —f"k tSo fofof/krk & [kk|kuksa] nkyksa] frygu esa ---

e/;izns'k esa tSo fofo/krk : 

e/;izns'k esa tSo fofo/krk fofHkUu oU; izk.kh & izeq[k :i ls dkUgk] cka/kox<+] isap esa ck?k] pEcy esa ?kfM+;ky] dkUgk esa ckjgflaxk i'kq/ku & dM+dukFk eqxkZ] fuekM+h eosf'k;ksa tSlh iztkfr;k osVyS.M (wetlands) & Hkksiky dk Hkkst osVyS.M] pEcy unh]

tSo fofo/krk dh gkfu : 

tSo fofo/krk dh gkfu Hkkjr esa ladVxzLr ;k yqIr iztkfr;kWa phrs dk vafre izekf.kd mYys[k 1948 esa NRrhlx<+ ds cLrj esa ,fl;kbZ flag (Asiatic Lion) & dsoy xqtjkr esa I.U.C.U. (International Union for conservation of Nature) & oxhZdj.k & foyqIr (Extinet) xaHkhj ladVxzLr (Critically endangered) ladVkiUuk (threatened) Hkkjr esa 93 vHk;pj (ambhibians), 168 ljhLr`i (Reptites), 217 rkts ikuh dh eNfy;ka] 94 LruikbZ tho (Mammals) [krjs esa & ikS/kksa dh 290 iztkfr;kWa [krjs esaA

Slide 28: 

09/5749 25/521 72/458 88/390 244/18664 03/231

tSo fofo/krk dh gkfu ds dkj.k : 

tSo fofo/krk dh gkfu ds dkj.k Hkwfe ds mi;ksx esa cnyko & ekuoh; vkcknh c<+us ls & taxyksa] pkjkxkgksa ,oa osV yS.M ij ncko phrs ds yqIr gksus dk lh/kk dkj.k ;gh ekuk x;kA jk"Vªh; i'kq ck?k dh vkcknh esa deh

tSo fofo/krk dh gkfu ds dkj.k : 

tSo fofo/krk dh gkfu ds dkj.k vkokl {ks= (Habitat) dk fo[k.Mu & tSo fofo/krk ls laiUu bykdksa dk NksVs&NksVs VqdM+ksa es caVuk Multiculture jksi.k ls monoculture jksi.k ¼dqnjrh ouksa dks bekjrh ;k yqxnh cukus ds fy;s lkxkSu] ;wdsfyIVl] flYoj vksd vkfn dk jksi.k½

tSo fofo/krk dh gkfu ds dkj.k : 

tSo fofo/krk dh gkfu ds dkj.k ubZ iztkfr;ka ¼xSj ns'kt [kjirokj iztkfr;ka½ & ikFksZfu;e] yS.Vkuk & dk vkxeu & tSofofo/krk ij Hkkjh ladV cuk

tSo fofo/krk dh gkfu ds dkj.k : 

tSo fofo/krk dh gkfu ds dkj.k ikS/kksa vkSj tkuojksa dh iztkfr;ksa dk vfr'k; nksgu feV~Vh] ikuh vkSj okrkoj.k dk iznw"k.k HkweaMy dh tyok;q esa cnyko

tSo fofo/krk dh gkfu ds dkj.k : 

tSo fofo/krk dh gkfu ds dkj.k xSj fVdkÅ (Non-sustainable) fodkl & 1951 vkSj 1980 ds chp Hkkjr ds djhc 5 yk[k gsDVs;j ou] unh ?kkVh ;kstukvksa esaA vkS|ksxhdj.k] ekbfuax ds dkj.k tSo fofo/krk dks uqdlku

[ksrh vkSj okfudh ds xyr rjhds : 

[ksrh vkSj okfudh ds xyr rjhds dhVuk'kdksa] jklk;fud [kknksa dk vR;kf/kd iz;ksx ns'kh iztkfr ds LFkku ij ladj iztkfr (Hybrid) dk mi;ksx fofo/krk dh txg ,d lekurk (uniformity) ,oa mRikndrk dks c<+kok

[ksrh vkSj okfudh ds xyr rjhds : 

[ksrh vkSj okfudh ds xyr rjhds ou{ks=ksa esa ,d gh iztkfr dk O;olkf;d jksi.k vusd iztkfr;ksa dh txg ,d cgqewY; iztkfr dk jksi.k ir>M+ ,oa lnkcgkj ouksa esa fons'kh iztkfr;ksa dk jksi.k dbZ igkfM+;ksa ds taxyksa esa ¼mRrj&if'pe ,oa nf{k.k Hkkjr esa taxyksa ds LFkku ij pk; o dkQh ds ckxku

ekuo vkSj oU;tho Vdjko (Man - Animal Conflict) : 

ekuo vkSj oU;tho Vdjko (Man - Animal Conflict) e-iz- esa gj lky djhc 93 djksM+ :i;ksa dh Qly cjckn gksrh gS & Qlyksa dh cpkus dh ykxr ¼etnwjh o j[kokyh dk [kpZ½ djhc 527 djksM+ :i;s

ekuo vkSj oU;tho Vdjko (Man - Animal Conflict) : 

ekuo vkSj oU;tho Vdjko (Man - Animal Conflict) xzkeh.k ,oa 'kgjh bykds esa rsanq;s dk vkØe.k] taxyh lqvj] —".ke`x ls Qlyksa dks uqdlku] egqvk chuus ds ekSle esa jhN dk vkØe.k dkj.k & taxyksa ds vfr'k; nksgu] Habital ds u"V gksus ls

tSo fofo/krk laj{k.k gsrq iz;kl : 

tSo fofo/krk laj{k.k gsrq iz;kl ikjaifjd iz;kl vk/kqfud iz;kl ifo= izk—frd LFky vkSj iztkfr;k izca/ku ds ikjaifjd rjhds lkeqnkf;d cht cSd varjkZ"Vªh; le>kSrk (United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity) jk"Vªh; vf/kfu;e oulaj{k.k vf/kfu;e 1980] oU;tho lqj{kk vf/kfu;e 1972 ] i;kZoj.k laj{k.k vf/kfu;e 1986] tSo fofo/krk laj{k.k vf/kfu;e 2002 In situ jk"Vªh; m|ku] vH;kj.;] ou{ks=] Ex situ Conservation iz;ksx'kkyk] thu cSad] laxzgky; ouLifr m|ku

In situ Conservation ¼var% LFkkus laj{k.k½ : 

In situ Conservation ¼var% LFkkus laj{k.k½ jk"Vªh; m|ku (National Park) vkSj oU; tho vH;kj.k (Sanctuaries) la;qDr ou izca/ku >hyksa dk laj{k.k (Wet Land Conservation)

In situ Conservation ¼var% LFkkus laj{k.k½ : 

In situ Conservation ¼var% LFkkus laj{k.k½ jk"Vªh; m|ku (National Park) vkSj oU; tho vH;kj.k (Sanctuaries) Hkkjr esa 96 jk"Vªh; m|ku ,oa 500 ls vf/kd oU;izk.kh vH;kj.k e-iz- esa 09 jk"Vªh; m|ku ,oa 23 oU;izk.kh vH;kj.k Hkkjr es dqy 28 Vkbxj fjtoZ e-iz- esa dqy 05 Vkbxj fjtoZ Hkkjr esa dqy 15 ck;ksLQh;j fjtoZ e-iz- esa dqy 01 ck;ksLQh;j fjtoZ

In situ Conservation ¼var% LFkkus laj{k.k½ : 

In situ Conservation ¼var% LFkkus laj{k.k½ la;qDr ou izca/ku lfefr;ksa ds ek/;e ls ouksa dh vfXu] voS/k dVkbZ] voS/k pjkbZ] voS/k f'kdkj ls lqj{kk

In situ Conservation ¼var% LFkkus laj{k.k½ : 

In situ Conservation ¼var% LFkkus laj{k.k½ >hyksa dk laj{k.k (WetLand Conservation) Important Wetlanda gfjds ¼iatkc½ osEckun&dksy ¼dsjy½ fpYdk>hy ¼mM+hlk½ Hkhrjdfudk esuxzwo ¼mM+hlk½ iwoZ dksydkrk csVyWaM ¼i-caxky½ lkaHkj>hy ¼jktLFkku½ dsoyknso us'kuy ikdZ ¼jktLFkku½ Hkkst ¼e-iz-½ yksdrd >hy ¼ef.kiqj½

Ex situ Conservation ckg~; LFkkusa laj{k.k : 

Ex situ Conservation ckg~; LFkkusa laj{k.k fpfM+;k ?kj (Zoo) iztuu ,oa iztkfr;ksa dk iqu%LFkkiuk laj{k.k lqfo/kk esa iztkfr dh i;kZIr vkcknh cukuk canh voLFkk dh iztuu lqfo/kkvksa (Captive Breeding) ls iSnk gksus okys tkuojksa dks oU;{ks=ksa esa j[kuk e.g. Hkkjr esa lQsn dwcM+okys fx) (white-Rumped Valture) Hkkjrh; fx) (Indian Valture)

Ex situ Conservation ckg~; LFkkusa laj{k.k : 

Ex situ Conservation ckg~; LFkkusa laj{k.k fpfM+;k ?kj (Zoo) iryh pksp okys fx) (Slender billed Valture) ¼MkbDyksfQusd nok ds bLrseky ls fx)ks dh vkcknh vR;ar de gks pqdh gSA eg- e-iz- esa lh/kh ftys esa lksu ?kfM;ky vH;kj.k esa ?kfM;ky dh nqyZHk iztkfr ds iztuu dk dk;ZØe

Ex situ Conservation ckg~; LFkkusa laj{k.k : 

Ex situ Conservation ckg~; LFkkusa laj{k.k ouLifr ,oa izk.kh m|ku laxzgky; ¼ladVxzLr iztkfr;ksa ds lqjf{kr j[kus dk ek/;e½ i;kZoj.k ,oa ou ea=ky; }kjk fo'o fo|ky;ksa ,oa egkfo|ky;ksa ds ifjljksa esa ouLifr m|ku dks c<+kok thu cSad & Qlyksa dh taxyh fdLeksa] vU; ikS/kksa ,oa tkuojksa dk vuqokaf'kd inkFkZ (DNA) dks lqjf{kr j[kk tkuk

tSo fofo/krk vf/kfu;e 2002 : 

tSo fofo/krk vf/kfu;e 2002 tSo fofo/krk laj{k.k gsrq Hkkjr o"kZ 1992 esa fj;ks Ms tsusjks lEesyu esa United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity dk lnL; cukA tSo fofo/krk vf/kfu;e 2002 jk"Vªh; tSo fofo/krk izkf/kdj.k & eq[;ky; psUubZ (National Biodiversity Authority) jkT; tSo fofo/krk izkf/kdj.k & (State Biodiversity Authority) ftyk iz'kklu] uxjikfydk] iapk;r Lrj ij tSo fofo/krk izca/ku lfefr;ka (Biodiversity Management Committees BMC) BMC yksd tSo fofo/krk jftLVj cukuk] ftlds vk/kkj ij izR;sd leqnk; }kjk vius bykds

tSo fofo/krk dks cpkus gsrq tu lkekU; ,oa tkx:d ukxfjdksa rFkk ftEesnkj inks ij vklhu O;fDr;ksa ls vis{kk,Wa : 

tSo fofo/krk dks cpkus gsrq tu lkekU; ,oa tkx:d ukxfjdksa rFkk ftEesnkj inks ij vklhu O;fDr;ksa ls vis{kk,Wa rkykc] ufn;ksa ,oa >hyksa dk laj{k.k i;kZoj.k laj{k.k gsrq O;fDrxr ,oa laLFkkxr iz;kl vf/kd ls vf/kd o`{kkjksi.k ns'kh iztkfr;ksa dk ou {ks=ksa esa vfrØe.k dks lHkh Lrj grksRlkfgr djus ds iz;kl [ksrksa esa dhVuk'kdks ,oa jklk;fud [kkn ds iz;ksx dks grksRlkfgr djuk ,oa tSfod [ksrh dks c<+kok lrr~ tu psruk ,oa tkx:drk vfHk;ku pykuk ou vf/kdkfj;ksa esa fo"k; ds egRo ,oa fQYM esa iz;ksx dks c<+kok

Slide 53: 

12 THANKS ANY QUARRY OR SUGGESTION WELCOME AT pnmishra11@yahoo.com, sdosousar@rediffmail.com