Slide 1: BAMBOO : An Introduction BAMBOO YEAR 2010
TARGETTING 10 MILLIONS
BAMBOO SAPLINGS TO BE PLANTED IN JULY ---BY FOREST DEPARTMENT M.P.GOVERNMENT, INDIA PRESENTATION BY-
P.N.MISHRA ADDL.D.F.O. SAUSAR
INDIA Slide 2: …Tribe -- Bambuseae
…Family -- Gramineae
…30 Genera & 550 Species
… IN Asia 320 Species
…In South America 179 Species
…In India 136 Species BAMBOO Slide 3: BAMBOO IN INDIA India has the world`s highest resource of bamboo.
About 136 Bamboo species in 36 genera found in India.
North east India holds the largest stock and diversity of Bamboos Slide 4: Distribution Soil and Site Features of some Bamboos in India Slide 5: Distribution Soil and Site Features of some Bamboos in India Slide 6: Distribution Soil and Site Features of some Bamboos in India Slide 7: Distribution Soil and Site Features of some Bamboos in India Slide 8: Distribution Soil and Site Features of some Bamboos in India Slide 9: WHY BAMBOO ? Bamboo is a plant of tropical or sub tropical regions.
Hollow and woody.
With prominent knots.
Can reach up to 40 m in height
Multipurpose use, fast growth easy propagation, soil binding properties, short gestation period.
Every part of bamboo gets utilized Slide 10: Why Bamboo It has got a fibrous structure and the fibers are longer as compared to woods.
The strength properties are better than many timber species.
The circular and hollow cross-section of bamboo give it a high strength weight ratio.
Bamboo is elastic in comparison to wood.
The cross partition wall at each node make the bamboo strong and hard to bend or break at joints. Slide 11: Why Bamboo It has a smooth and clean surface.
It can be easily cut into required size and split-up into strips and house hold tools.
Bamboo culms can easily be stored and transported.
Growth is faster and matures within 3 years. Slide 12: SALIENT FEATURES Fast growing Renewable Resource.
Source of Livelihood.
Source of Green Power. Slide 13: THE WORLD OF BAMBOO A group of tall arborescent grasses.
Play vital role in the economy of the world.
Intimately linked with the socio-economic development of rural communities.
Eco friendly raw material capable of meeting multifarious needs of the people at large. Slide 14: THE WORLD OF BAMBOO “Poor man`s timber” is getting status of “the timber of 21 st century.
“Poor man timber” to common man timber”.
Environmental protection, nutrient food, high value construction material, paper & pulp industries, furniture, Agarbatti sticks, mats, fencing, Slide 15: Botany of Bamboo Morphology
Flowering of Bamboo
Fruit and seeds
Propagation of Bamboo . Slide 16: Morphology Complex, woody stemmed perennial grass belonging to family gramineae.
The portion of bamboo below the ground level is called rhizome which forms the vital source of its perennial growth.
Roots are produced by rhizome also extend upto lower nodes of the stem that are below the soil.
The culms and branches during their initial growth are protected with the sheath. Slide 17: Bamboo Bamboo Plant Leafy aerial part (the culm) Under ground parts (2) Root (3) Rhizome ckal dh o`f) ds fy;s lHkh lajpukvksa dk fodkl gksuk vko’;d gSaA Slide 18: A - Parent rhizome bearing one season old culm (k)
B & C - The new rhizome developing from parent rhizomes (A)
D & E - Buds on the parent rhizome which have failed to form new rhizome. Bamboo Slide 19: Rhizome The rhizome spreads horizontally beneath the soil and produces both roots and shoots from its nodes.
The two broad types of rhizomes sympodial and monopodial Slide 20: Bamboos Slide 21: Phyllotachys bamboosoides melocanna sp. Slide 22: Bambusa arundinacea Dendrocalamus strictus Slide 23: dinocloa species Slide 24: Sympodial Rhizomes Sympodial rhizomes grow in cluster and form clump by producing buds from their nodes at short intervals in different direction.
The bamboo produced from this type of rhizome is thick and strong
Most of the Indian bamboos have sympodial rhizome. Slide 25: Monopodial Rhizomes monopodial rhizomes continue to grow horizontally and produce buds at long intervals and hence do not form clumps. Slide 26: Bamboos Slide 27: Rhizome Buds New buds are produced from the youngest (one year old) rhizomes.
Two kinds of buds are produced by rhizome is the SCALY POINTED BUDS & the FLAT BUDS. The Scaly Pointed Bud develops into new rhizome below the ground & the Flat bud grows above the ground to form culm. Slide 28: Growth of Rhizome Adequate soil cover over the base of the clump.
Exposure to Sunlight stops the growth of rhizome. Slide 29: Culms The buds from the rhizomes, which grow above ground are called culm or stem. These are hollow (Some times solid) cylindrical, jointed and tapering upwards Slide 30: Nodes The joints of culms are called nodes from where the branches and leaves spread. Slide 31: Sheath During young stage the culm are covered with sheath at each internode which falls off as the bamboo grows. Slide 32: Culm sheath Culm sheaths are modified leaves.
Arranged alternatively on opposite sides of the growing culm.
Providing protective cover for the young shoots.
Sheath is attached to the nodes Slide 33: Branching Branches emerge from the nodes and arranged on alternate side of the culm. Slide 34: Flowering of Bamboo Like other plants, bamboo does not flower annually.
Flowering and fruiting occurs only once during the lifetime at certain age of the clum after which it dies.
Flowering cycle – 7 yrs to 60 yrs.
2 different types of flowring
* Gregarious Slide 35: Fruit and Seeds Bambusa_arundinacea seeds Dendrocalamus_strictus seeds flowering bamboo Slide 36: Bamboo Propagation Reproductive methods Rhizomes Vegetative methods Through seeds Through Vegetative parts Culms Branches Slide 37: Seed Propagation If the seeds are available, this is the best method of bamboo propagation since clump age would be known at the initial stage of its life. Slide 38: Seed Propagation Collection of Seed – from sporadic or gregarious flowered area.
Sowing of Seed – in mother beds.
Seed Sowing time – Sept. – Oct.
Light straw cover to be provided for 2-3 days to enhance the germination. Slide 39: Seed Propagation Germination – Starts between 4-10 days after sowing.
After a month (in Nov-Dec.) Seedlings can be transplanted to poly pots filled with soil mixture.
Maintenance for one year before planting. Slide 40: Vegetative Propagation OFFSET METHOD Two node cutting method CULM CUTTINGS Rhizomes (from healthy mother clump) One node cutting method Lower part (basal portion of single culm (1-2 yrs old) Slide 41: Vegetative Propagation Use of rhizome offsets and culm offsets.
Lower part (basal portion) of a single culm (preferable one to two year old) cut to contain 3 to 5 nodes.
Culm is cut an a slanting direction.
The rhizome with well developed buds cut at the rhizome neck from the parent clump. Offset Method Slide 42: Vegetative Propagation The offsets should be extracted from a healthy mother clump.
Once the offset has been extracted the rhizome portion should be wrapped in wet sack to prevent dying up.
The slant cut of the culm should be sealed with earth or mud. Offset Method Slide 43: Vegetative Propagation The Propagation material consits of culm cutting with two nodes, one full inter node and open inter node
The material is prepared as follow’s :-
The cutting should be obtained from a culm of about 1½ to 2 years old.
The open internode (the next upper internode should be kept long as possible by cutting the next upper internode close to the third node portion of the culm. Culm Cutting Slide 44: Vegetative Propagation As much as possible, the basal portion of branches should remain at the nodes pruned to about 10 to 30 cm. The existing buds should be healthy and not injured.
Once the cutting has been prepared wrap the segments with moist saw dust or coconut husk to minimize water lods from cut ends. Culm Cutting Slide 45: Vegetative Propagation The cutting or Propagules should be potted immediatly after having them prepared though culm/branch cutting/root propagules .
Poly bags to be filled with loamy soil with high organic matter and sand content.
Common sizes of poly bags.
For rhizome seedling – 25 cm X 15 cm
For culm cutting – 30 cm X 25 cm
For branch cutting – 25 cm X 20 cm Culm Cutting – Potting Procedure Slide 46: Maintenance Watering – at regular intervals
Fertilization – Every three months after planting (NPK)
Protection – against animats, insects, fire, rodents & termites Slide 47: USAGES Structural
Bamboo particle board
Bamboo mat Slide 48: USAGES Utility Products
Bamboo incence (Agarbatti) stick
Food – Bamboo shoots Slide 49: 12 THANKS
ANY QUARRY OR SUGGESTION WELCOME AT