Fish culture-Ornamental fish culture & Indian major carps

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“ORNAMENTAL FISH CULTURE & INDIAN MAJOR CARPS”:

“ ORNAMENTAL FISH CULTURE & INDIAN MAJOR CARPS ” Dr.K.RAMESHKUMAR Assistant Professor PG & Research Dept. of Zoology Vivekananda College Tiruvedakam West Vivekananda College Tiruvedakam- West

ORNAMENTAL FISH CULTURE :

ORNAMENTAL FISH CULTURE

What is an aquarium????? :

What is an aquarium????? A tank or pool or bowl filled with water for keeping live fish and underwater animals. An aquarium is a specially designed device that acts as an artificial habitat for water-dwelling animals.

Ornamental fish culture:

Ornamental fish culture The  culture  of  ornamental fishes  is called as aquariculture.  Ornamental fish culture  is the  culture  of attractive, colourful  fishes  of various characteristics, which are reared in a confined aquatic system. Farmers and hobbyists mainly grow it.  Ornamental fishes  are also known as living jewels.

AQUARIUM SET-UP:

AQUARIUM SET-UP Proper site selection (convenient water source, electricity, water drains, etc.) Need GFCI - Ground Fault Circuit Interupter electrical outlets Strong supports and tank cushion Add water, then substrate and filter Aeration and heater Accessories (covers and lights)

Plants of the aquarium:

Plants of the aquarium • Rooted plants a.) Vallisneria b.) Sagittaria • Cuttings a.) Fanwort b.) Hygrophila c.) Limnophila • Floating plants a.) Lemna b.) Riccia c.) Salvinia

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Maintenance

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The place and the stand • Select the place where the temperature is the most stable during the whole year . • Another aspect is the aquarium stand . Usually a marine aquarium is very heavy because of the amount of the water . The stand has to be strong.

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Feeding • The general rule is to feed small amounts frequently . • Balanced food which consists of proteins, fat, vitamins , minerals and carbohydrates. • Most aquarium fish are fed on industrial food, which has the form of flakes or granules. But you should feed them with natural food also.

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• Natural food: It covers plants, protozoa, gnathostoma, coelenterates, larvae of mosquitoes and crustacean , shrimps, flies, coelenterates etc. • Homemade food: minced meat, leafy vegetables, lightly boiled and minced. • Fish shouldn’t be fed on the same diet for long periods.

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Factors Involved Temperature Lightning Salinity pH

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1. Temperature • Temperature stress is one of the leading killers of aquarium animals. • Ideal range for a freshwater tank = 77 to 83F. • Ideal range for a saltwater tank= 76 to 82F. • At the Summer you need a chiller and during the Winter you need a heater.

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2.Lighting • If aquarium doesn't get sunlight then artificial lights are used. • If you use normal wolfram bulbs, the water could overheat. • The light should be in the form of long fluorescent tube.

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3. Salinity • Salinity is a measure of the total amount of dissolved salts in seawater. Measured in parts per thousand (ppt). • The average salinity of the ocean is around 34 to 37 ppt. • Refractometers and hydrometers can be used to estimate salinity in marine systems .

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4. pH 1. pH level in saltwater systems = 7.6 - 8.4. The normal trend for pH in a tank is more acidic. These acids come from several sources, the primary ones being: (1) excess carbon dioxide (CO2) from respiration (2) nitric acid from biological filtration (nitrification) (3) organic acids from metabolic wastes.

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2.The optimum pH for a freshwater community tank pH value between 6.5 to 8.0 . In checking the pH of the local supply water, either let a cup of tap water stand for a day or two or simply check the aquarium water itself a few days after setup. It is still valuable to check the pH periodically!

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Components

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• The typical aquarium includes- 1. Filtration system 2. Artificial lighting system 3. Heater or chiller.

WATER FILTRATION:

WATER FILTRATION Mechanical – passing water through materials that remove suspended solids Biological – use of bacteria and other living organisms to convert harmful substances to less harmful forms Chemical – use of chemical substances to purify water

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1. Filtration system • Purpose - To clean the water of debris and suspended particles, remove ammonia and nitrites and aerate the water. • Working- Most aquarium filters are divided into three sections: Biological , Mechanical and Chemical .

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Filtration system in a typical aquarium (1) intake, (2) mechanical filtration, (3) chemical filtration, (4) biological filtration medium, (5) outflow to tank

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1.Biological • An aquarium filter is a breeding ground for two main types of bacteria. • The first type of bacteria breaks down the potentially very poisonous ammonia that fish produce into less harmful nitrites, and then a second type of bacteria breaks down the nitrites into even less harmful nitrates .

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Uses bacteria to convert ammonia to nitrite and then to nitrate Crawfish and snails help keep tank clean

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2. Mechanical Removes large suspended particles of debris from the water. 3 . Chemical The purpose of this is to remove medications and heavy metal traces from the water. Some aquarists use air pumps or water pumps to increase water circulation and supply adequate gas exchange at the water surface.

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Chemicals include ozone, ultraviolet light, activated charcoal, and special chemicals

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2.Lightning • Tank illumination describes any kind of light that is used to brighten an aquarium. • Since improper lighting causes fish stress, poor growth, and impeded health, buying the right kind should be considered. • The main purpose of this is to replicate the conditions of their natural environment.

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• There are different fixtures designed for every type of habitat - 1. bulbs, 2. fluorescent tubes, 3. metal halide lamps, and others. • To beautify the look of your tank and increase the growth and health of your creatures, it is best that you choose the perfect and sufficient lighting technology for your aquarium.

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3. A Heater or Chiller • Aquarium heaters combine a heating element with a thermostat , allowing the aquarist to regulate water temperature at a level above that of the surrounding air. • Whereas coolers and chillers (refrigeration devices) are for use anywhere, such as cold water aquaria, that the ambient room temperature is above the desired tank temperature. • Thermometers used include- 1. glass alcohol thermometers, 2. adhesive external plastic strip thermometers, 3. battery-powered LCD thermometers.

Tips to Maintain A Healthy Aquarium…..:

Tips to Maintain A Healthy Aquarium…..

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1) You must have sufficient light. 2) Check your plants regularly to ensure roots don't come loose. 3) Don't overcrowd the aquarium. 4) Try to emulate an environment close to the plants’ and fishes’ original environment. 5) Beware of introducing a diseased fish into your freshwater aquarium. 6) Purchase your aquarium fishes and other components required from a reputable dealer.

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Benefits of an Aquarium Sit back and relax. Reduces stress and lowers blood pressure . Reduces the experience of pain. Alzheimer's and aquariums……..

SPECIES SELECTION FACTORS:

SPECIES SELECTION FACTORS Temperature – tropical versus temperate Salinity – freshwater, brackish, or saltwater Reproduction – livebearers versus egg-layers Size – size of fish needs to match tank Feeding habits – carnivores, herbivores, or omnivores

SPECIES SELECTION FACTORS:

SPECIES SELECTION FACTORS Behaviour – some species are aggressive Physical appearance – some species are “fancy” (unusual color, shape, etc.)

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GOLD FISH Scientific Name: Carassius auratus Attainable Size: 59 cms Origin: Central Asia, China and Japan. Environment: Fresh water Water pH: 7.5 to 8.5, Temperature: 17 to 28°C Company: Can be kept with other large nonaggressive species if aquarium is large enough to accommodate. Aquarium: As it grows big, it requires a large aquarium. A well planted aquarium is preferred. It is a bottom dweller. Feed: Omnivorous, accept dry food, likes to eat small insects and also like vegetable food. Gold fish feeds on a large variety of food. Breeding: Gold fish breeds easily in garden ponds and also in spacious aquariums with plenty of oxygen and feathery leaves. A substrate spawner is necessary as the parents eat their own eggs. It is preferred to remove the parents after spawning.

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MOLLY FISH Scientific Name: Mollienisia lapipinna , M. vetifeara and M.sphenops . Common Name: Molly and the liberty fish respectively. Attainable Size: 4 inches, 5inches and 3 inches respectively Origin: Mexico, Yucatan and Gulf coast respectively. Environment: Fresh and brackish water Water pH: 7.0 to 7.5 Temperature: 70 to 80°F Company: Mollies require plenty of space and react badly to over crowding, Aquarium: Aquarium should be so placed as it receives a lot of sunlight. It should be large, well lighted and thickly planted. Feed: Although Mollies prefer vegetarian foods, it exhibits omnivorous food habit. Breeding: Mollies are live bearer.

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ANGEL FISH Scientific Name: Pterophillum scalare Common Name: Angel Fish Water pH: 6.5-6.9 Attainable Size: 6 inches Origin: It originates from the slow flowing rivers and streams of South America Feed: It accepts most prepared food eg. Flaked food, black worm, chopped earth worm and several dried food.

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GUPPY Scientific Name: Poecilia reticulata Common Name: Guppy Fish Attainable Size: 2.5 inches Environment: Fresh and brackish water Origin: South America, Venezuela, Trinidad, Northern Brazil and Ghana. Company: Can be kept in most community aquariums. Don't keep with aggressive fish. Water pH: 7.0 to 8.5 Temperature: 18 to 28°C Aquarium: Best kept with a lot of plants and free swimming space Feed: Accepts all kind of food that is small enough. Fry accepts fine flake food. Breeding: live bearer. Females give birth to fry once every 2 to 2.5 weeks.

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KOI CARP Scientific Name: Cyprinus carpio Common Name: Koi Carp Attainable Size: 48 inches Environment: Fresh and brackish Water Company: Can be kept with most large nonaggressive species Water pH: 7. 0 -7.5 Temperature: 3 -32°C Aquarium: Requires a very large aquarium with a lot of space to swim on the surface. Areas with plants are appreciated if your aquarium can support both plants and open area. Feed: All kinds of food. Breeding: Females are rounder in spawning condition. Move eggs to a separate aquarium since parents eat them.

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SIAMESE FIGHTER FISH Scientific Name: Betta splendens Common Name: Fighter Fish Attainable Size: up to 75 mm Origin: Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia and indeed entire South East Asia Water: pH 6.5-7.5 Temperature: 24-29°C Company: Usually aggressive to other male mates, can be kept with other species Feed: Omnivorous. Small live and dried food, flake food and chopped earthworm

EASY-TO-GROW SPECIES:

EASY-TO-GROW SPECIES

MEDIUM-CARE SPECIES:

MEDIUM-CARE SPECIES

DIFFICULT-TO-GROW SPECIES:

DIFFICULT-TO-GROW SPECIES

ORNAMENTAL AQUARIUM PLANTS:

ORNAMENTAL AQUARIUM PLANTS

ORNAMENTAL AQUACROPS:

ORNAMENTAL AQUACROPS Multimillion dollar industry Primarily for recreational purposes Also for education and research Two main areas are fish keeping and commercial production Fish keeping is caring for ornamental fish species as a hobby Commercial producers breed and market organisms for the fish keepers

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INDIAN MAJOR CARPS

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THANK YOU

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