Fish culture-Construction and Maintenance of fish pond

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CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF FISH POND:

CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF FISH POND Dr.K.RAMESHKUMAR Assistant Professor of Zoology Vivekananda College Tiruvedakam West Vivekananda College Tiruvedakam- West

CONSTRUCTION OF FISH POND:

CONSTRUCTION OF FISH POND

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CONTENTS INTRODUCTION LOCATION OF A FISH FARM 1. TOPOGRAPHY 2. SOIL TYPES 3. WATER SUPPLY LAY OUT OF FISH FARM POND MAINTENANCE AND IMPROVEMENT a. LIMING b. FERTILIZATION c. INORGANIC FERTILIZERS d. ORGANIC FERTILIZER e. ARTIFICIAL FEEDING f. FISHING OR HARVESTING

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INTRODUCTION A fish culturist needs different types of ponds for rearing various stages of fish ,and has to decide on the layout of his farm and extent. The design of fish farm and number and size of the ponds depends on the species of the fish to be cultured. The primary consideration in constructing a fish farm is the site which has to be selected on the basis of soil , water and drainage .

CONSTRUCTION OF FISH FARM :

CONSTRUCTION OF FISH FARM LOCATION OF FISH FARM SOIL TYPES WATER SUPPLY TOPOGRAPHY LAYOUT OF FISH FARM HATCHING PIT NURSERY PONDS REARING PONDS STOCKING PONDS

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LOCATION OF A FISH FARM Success of fish farming and economy of the contraction would depend largely on the selection of a suitable site for the farm. The main consideration are I. Topography II. Soil types III. Water supply

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TOPOGRAPHY Topography means the surface feature of the area , and is important both from the point of view of construction and for future maintenance. Ideal topography of a fish farm site is a gently sloping terrain of a wide valley , or a bowl shaped area with high lands on three sides and a narrow outlet on the fourth

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Such a place chosen desirable soil and suitable water supply Such an area can be easily converted into a large pond by erecting an embankment for closing the outlet. Dressing up the bottom of bring it to a uniform depth and sealing the bottom to prevent leakage may be necessary. Construction plan should include provision for handling flow of water and also for complete drainage.

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SOIL TYPES Soil must be impervious so as not allow any seepage. Good soil – clay loam soil contain – Clay 30 -33% Slit 30% Sand 45% •Rocky and sandy soil area avoid, ordinary heavy and silty clay are suitable – store water long period •Porous soil –unsuitable form stocking pond

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WATER SUPPLY It dependable source of water supply are Lake and reservoirs Springs Rivers Canals Wells Streams Big tanks ,reservoir and lakes are perhaps the best sources of water.

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LAYOUT OF THE FISH FARM Before starting the construction , the layout plans have to be drown for location ,deigns and the number of various types of pond . For subsistence fishing , only a small sized of 0.04 ha is enough ,but for commercial and experimental farms, larger areas are needed for constructing nursery, rearing , stocking and breeding ponds . Various farm building such as laboratory, store house, watchman’s residential quarters etc. are also to be constructed.

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HATCHING PITS small tanks ,usually of 2.5 m X 1.25m X 0.75m , for used fertilization eggs, located near riverine collection grounds. Continuous but slow flow water . Different types hatchery are found in different area- HAPA METHOD FIBER GLASS JAR HATCHERY CIRCULAR HATCHERY

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HAPA METHOD a smaller mesh cloth tank called hapa of 2 X 1 X 0.5 m of cheap coarse cloth and mosquito curtain cloth, is fixed up. 75000 fertilized eggs containing in inner hapa , most of poor farmer used .

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FIBER GLASS JAR HATCHERY This hatchery is a specially designed apperatus which consist of several fiber glass jar each of 6.35 liter capicity . 50000 fertilized eggs are placed in each jar , continuous flow of water Eggs are hatched within 10 - 13 hours but hatchery is almost 100% . This method used mainly some species like salmoids

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INCUBATION POND Two concrete incubation ponds in each unit and both of them are circular in shape Each ponds has two chamber ; outer and inner chamber’ The latter chamber is 0. 75 meter , inner chamber there are stop cocked exit pipe hole though which excess water removed This circular tanks 4 diameter, these tank connect to breeding pond and hatchling receiving pond.

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HATCHLING RECEIVING POND The inside dimensions are 4 x 2.5 x 1.2 m. This is located at a lower level than the incubation pond, so as to drain out the water from it by gravity. BREEDING POND INCUBATION POND N. P HATCHLING POND RECEVING

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POND MAINTENANCE AND IMPROVEMENT

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The productivity of the pond depends upon its soil base , and can be greatly enhanced by – I. Controlling the vegetation II. Cleaning the pond bottom III. Liming and IV. Fertilization All undesirable plants and weeds removed. The pond should be emptied, dried and cleaned at suitable intervals.

LIMING :

LIMING We are mostly used quick lime ( Cao), raised the pH of the water and acts as an antiparasitic substance . It kill the bacteria and other fish parasite. A dose of 100 – 200 kg/ ha is sufficient if liming is done every year. Control the fish gill rot disease , quick lime generally spread on the pond bottom, 10- 15 days before stocking the fish . Leave that pond at least 2 week.

FERTILIZATION:

FERTILIZATION The purpose of fertilization increase the productivity by increasing the natural food available. Inorganic nitrogenous fertilizer used in fish pond are sodium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium carbonate and urea etc., Ammonium sulphate cause phytoplankton blooms, and heavy growth of zooplankton.

INORGANIC FERTILIZERS:

INORGANIC FERTILIZERS In inorganic fertilizer contain suitability of N and P content in soil. Phosphate fertilizer is used 25-30 kg / ha and is very effective in producing algal bloom. These are also used better growth of natural food in fish pond.

ORGANIC FERTILIZER:

ORGANIC FERTILIZER The liquid manure from stables is very beneficial and stimulates the growth of zooplankton and phytoplankton. Liquid manure is release in small quantity only the deeper parts. Fish guano, farm manure ( cow and house dung) and sewage also consist good manure. green manure, soya bean meal, cotton seed meal, mustard oil cakes, etc.,

ARTIFICIAL FEEDING:

ARTIFICIAL FEEDING Fish production can be increase by artificial feeding , fish should feed cheap and simple. Whole grain , flour , rice bran , oil cake , and kitchen waste are generally used as fish food. Method of giving food- the food can be kept in basket or spread on the water.

FISHING OR HARVESTING :

FISHING OR HARVESTING This is done by draining the pond or netting . By draining , harvesting is completed and predators can be dried , cleaned , repaired , and soil enriched by fertilization. However , if the ponds are constructed in a row , loss of water can be avoided and ponds are drained by turns.

References :

References 1- ‘AN INTRODUCTION OF FISHES’ ( S.S KHANA ) 2- ‘FISH AND FISHERIES’ ( S. N YADAV) 3- FISH PONDS FOR THE FARM ( FRANK C. EDMISTER )

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