Fish culture -Fish Diseases

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“Fish Diseases”:

“Fish Diseases” Dr.K.RAMESHKUMAR Assistant Professor of Zoology Vivekananda College Tiruvedakam West Vivekananda College Tiruvedakam- West

An Introduction::

An Introduction: Fish farming is profitable only when fishes are reared free from diseases. Diseases bring mass mortality of fishes and heavy economic loss. Hence disease free fish farming brings successful blue revolution. The study of fish disease is called Fish Pathology. The fish disease are classified into two types: 1. Parasitic Diseases 2. Deficiency Diseases

Types of Fish Diseases::

Types of Fish Diseases: 1. Parasitic diseases: (Endoparasites & Ectoparasites ) Parasitic diseases are caused by parasites. They are the following: a . Protozoan diseases b . Helminth diseases c. Leech diseases d. Crustacean diseases e. Fungal diseases f. Bacterial diseases g. Viral diseases 2. Deficiency Diseases: Deficiency diseases are caused by deficiency of nutrition such as vitamins, minerals etc.

1. Parasitic Diseases::

1. Parasitic Diseases: The diseases caused by parasites are called parasitic diseases or parasitosis . Caused by: Protozoans, helminth worms, leeches, crustaceans, fungi, bacteria and viruses. Ectoparasites : They are found on the surface of the body. They infect scales, skin, fins, operculum, gills etc. Eg ., Myxobolus - Knot disease- Protozoa Endoparasites : They remain inside the body. They infect such as guts, blood vessels, bones, ear, brain etc. E.g., Ligula intestinalis- Ligulosis - Helminth

a. Protozoan Diseases::

a. Protozoan Diseases: White Spot disease: ( Ichthyophthiriasis ) It is protozoan Ectoparasitic disease characterized by white spots on the body. Also called itch disease as it causes itching. Caused by: Protozoan ciliate Ichthyophthirius . Symptoms: Skin, fin rays and operculum becomes covered with many white protuberant pustules. Irritation caused by the drilling of parasite on the epidermis. Skin is covered with white membrane in serious cases. Disease fish responds to stimulus slowly and swims near surface. Secondary bacterial infection- Epidermal inflammation, local necrosis, rotting, splitting of fin rays. It results mass mortality because of dyspnea and starvation. Treatment: Dip treatment in 1:5000 formalin water solution for one hour for a week. Dip treatment in 2% common salt solution for a week.

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Fig: Protozoan ciliate Ichthyophthirius Fig: Myxosoma cerebrai Fig: Costia necatrix

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2. Costiasis : Caused by: Flagellate protozoan Costia necatrix . Symptoms: Cause lesions, red patches on the skin, Gills turns brown, loss of appetite. Treatment: Dip treatment in 3% common salt and 1: 2500 formalin water for 10 minutes. 3. Whirling disease: Caused by: Sporozoan protozoan Myxosoma cerebrai , M. lieni etc . Symptoms : Loss of balance, whiriling round and fish fall at the bottom. Treatment: Pond disinfect with quicklime or formalin, burn affected fish. 4. Knot disease ( Myxobolosis ): Caused by: Sporozoan protozoa Myxobolous exiguous. Symptoms: Tiny knots in the skin. Treatment: Pond disinfect with quicklime or formalin, burn affected fish

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5.Trichondinasis and Trichpdinelliasis : Caused by : Ciliate Trichodina and Trichodinellia . Symptoms: Trichondinasis affects skin and Trichpdinelliasis affects gills. Lesions on skin, gill tissues rots, serious respiration. Treatment: Fingerlings are disinfected with 8 ppm copper sulphate solution. 6 . Cryptobiosis : Caused by : Protozoan flagellate- Cryptobia branchialis . Symptoms: Inflammation of gills of any freshwater fish. Treatment: Fingerlings are disinfected with 8 ppm copper sulphate solution for 20 to 30 minutes. Feeding area disinfected with mixture of copper sulphate and ferrous sulphate to a concentration 0.7 ppm.

b. Helminth Diseases::

b. Helminth Diseases: 1. Gryodactylosis : It is platyhelminth disease caused by Grydactylus . Commonly called Gill fluke. Affects gills, fins and skin, Colour fades, Scales droop, skin peels, excess secretion of mucous on gills and fins. 2 . Dactylogyrosis : Caused by Dactylogyrus , Platyhelminth trematode. It has adhesive organ, anchors and hook. Infected fish secrete mucous, gills become pale. Dip treatment for 3-5 minutes in 5% common salt. 3 . Ligulosis : Intestinal disease caused by tape worm called Lingula intestinalis. Worm blocks the alimentary canal, stomach and body cavity are distended. Dip treatment in 3:100000 picric acid water solution for one hour.

c. Leech Diseases::

c. Leech Diseases: Piscicolosis : Caused by: Leech- Piscicola geometra . Ectoparasite having suckers. It makes several incisions on the body. Secondary fungal infection on the wound cause more damage. Treatment: Dip treatment in 10 % common salt solution for 20 minutes. Bath in quick lime (10g in 10Litre). Fig: Piscicola geometra

d. Crustacean Diseases::

d. Crustacean Diseases: 1. Argulosis : Caused by Argulus . Commonly called fish lice . Attach to body with the help of suckers and hooks. Sucks blood and body fluids. Cause anaemia , red patches, gills damage, stunted growth and mass mortality. Dip treatment in Lysol-water solution 1: 5000 for 10 seconds. 2. Lernaeasis : Caused by Lernaea . Commonly called anchor worm. It is needle like and 6-12mm long. It sucks blood and body fluids, cause poor appetite, moves slowly, anaemia , red patches. 3. Caligus : Copepod crustacean parasite, called as fish lice. Sucks blood and body fluids. Treatment - Bath in 1: 1000 glacial acetic acid solution for 5 minutes. 4. Sinergasilusis : Affects gills, Infect gill filaments, wound cause inflammation, anemia. Bath the fingerlings with 7 ppm solution of copper sulphate and ferrous sulphate . Fig: Argulus

e. Fungal Diseases::

e. Fungal Diseases: Gill rot: Caused by: Fungus Branchiomyces. Symptoms: Infects gills, Hyphae of fungus grow into blood vessels and arrest supply to gills cause gill rot. Gills changes red patches into yellow brown. Respiration affected. Gulp air in surface. Trearment: Addition of quicklime in the pond 50-100 kg/ha. Dip treatment in 3% salt solution for 5-10 minutes. Saprolegniasis: (Water mould disease or dematomycosis) Caused by: Fungus Saprolegnia parasitica. Symptoms: Tufts of cotton wool like structure on the skin, ulcer on skin, secretes mucous, haemorrhage occurs, blindness occurs. Trearment: Disinfect the pond with quicklime. Dip treatment in potassium permanganate solution or three seconds in malachite green ointment or sulfa-ointment.

f. Bacterial Diseases: :

f. Bacterial Diseases : 1. Erythroderma: Caused by: Pseudomonas fluorescens . Symptoms: Skin inflammation, Bleeding from skin, loss of scales, Blood clot in fin base. Treatment: Sulphaguanidine for 6 days. 1 to 2 kg og garlic/100kg of fish daily for 6 days. 2 . Enteritis: Caused by: Aerommonas punctate. Symptoms: Intestinal inflammation, expanded abdomen, anus red and swollen, fins are congested and decayed. Treatment: Sulphathiazole orally for 6 days. First dose is 10g/100kg of fish, remaining day dose is 5g/100kg of fish. 3 . Bacterial gill rot: Caused by: Myxococcus piscicolus . Symptoms: Fish head becomes black, gills filaments become putrid and pale. Treatment: Pond disinfection with bleaching powder. Spray pond with erythromycin (0.3ppm). 4. Other diseases: Vertical scale disease, Infectious dropsy, Furunculosis .

g. Viral Diseases::

g. Viral Diseases: Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS): Affects: Indian major carps. Common name: Fish cancer. Caused by : Rhabdo virus. Symptoms: Haemorrhagic ulcers on the body, fins and gills. Ulcerative skin lesions. Kidney and liver are affected. Sloughing off of scales. Degeneration of epidermis. Treatment: Application of Quicklime at rate of 200kg/ha. Dip treatment in Chloramphenicol (1.5 ppm) for 2 minutes. Addition of nalidic acid and erythromycin in fish feed at the rate of 30 to 50 mg/ kg of feed. Fig: Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) affected fish

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2. Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN): Caused by: RNA virus Symptoms: Fry are affected. The fry looks darker. Necrosis of pancreatic cells Swim in a spiral fashion. Reason: Poor management enhances this disease. 3. Other Viral diseases: Infectious dropsy (Spring viraemia). Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS). Erythrocytic necrosis. Infectious haematopoietic hypodermal necrosis (IHHNV). Fig: Fish affected by Infectious pancreatic necrosis

2. Nutritional Deficiency Diseases::

2. Nutritional Deficiency Diseases: The disease caused by the deficiency of feed components is called Nutritional deficiency disease. If balanced feed is given nutritional deficiency disease will not occur. a. Constipation: Results when dry feed is given to fishes. b. Pin heads: When fingerlings and fry exposed to frequent starvation develops large heads and slender bodies. c. Lipoid hepatic Degeneration: Caused by overfeeding with feed containing rancid fat. Liver becomes yellowish colour , swollen. Gills become pale and anaemia develops. d. Rickets: It develops when large quantity of coconut oil cake or maize is fed. e. Soft shell syndrome: Caused by calcium and phosphorus deficiency in prawn. f: Vitaminosis A: Due to Vitamin A imbalance, Causes undergrowth, blindness, haemorrhage at the base of the fin and keratomalacia . Excess of vitamin A causes squamous metaplasia, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly.

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