PN JUNCTION FORMATION

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p-n junction formation:

p-n junction formation PREPARED By -----------PANKAJ KUMAR --------------EEE (BHARTI-VIDYAPEETH,S COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING,NEW-DELHI)

Slide 2:

The p-n junction is the basic element of all bipolar devices. Its main electrical property is that it rectifies (allow current to flow easily in one direction only).The p-n junction is often just called a DIODE. Applications; > photodiode, light sensitive diode, > LED- ligth emitting diode, > varactor diode-variable capacitance diode p – n junction

Slide 3:

The p-n junction can be formed by pushing a piece of p-type silicon into close contact with a piecce of n-type silicon. But forming a p-n junction is not so simply. Because; 1) There will only be very few points of contact and any current flow would be restricted to these few points instead of the whole surface area of the junction. Silicon that has been exposed to the air always has a thin oxide coating on its surface called the “native oxide”. This oxide is a very good insulator and will prevent current flow. Bonding arrangement is interrupted at the surface; dangling bonds. The formation of p-n junction :

Slide 4:

To overcome these surface states problems p-n junction can be formed in the bulk of the semiconductor, away from the surface as much as possible. Surface states

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p – n junction There is a big discontinuity in the fermi level accross the p-n junction. E C E İ E V E f E C E İ E V E f E C E İ E V E f p-type n-type E C E İ E V E f p-type n-type

Slide 6:

Idealized p-n junction; recombination of the carrier and carrier diffusion ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Hole Movement Electron Movement ++++ ++++ ++++ Fixed positive space-charge - - - - - - - - - Fixed negative space-charge Ohmic end-contact n-type p-type Metallurgical junction

Slide 7:

Lots of electrons on the left hand side of the junction want to diffuse to the right and lots of holes on the right hand side of the junction want to move to the left. The donors and acceptors fixed,don’t move (unless you heat up semiconductors, so they can diffuse) because they are elements (such as arsenic and boron) which are incorporated to lattice. However, the electrons and holes that come from them are free to move. p – n junction

Slide 8:

Holes diffuse to the left of the metalurgical junction and combine with the electrons on that side. They leave behind negatively charged acceptor centres. Similarly, electrons diffusing to the right will leave behind positively charged donor centres. This diffusion process can not go on forever. Because, the increasing amount of fixed charge wants to electrostatically attract the carriers that are trying to diffuse away(donor centres want to keep the electrons and acceptor centres want to keep the holes). Equlibrium is reached. This fixed charges produce an electric field which slows down the diffusion process. This fixed charge region is known as depletion region or space charge region which is the region the free carriers have left. It is called as depletion region since it is depleted of free carriers. Idealized p-n junction

Slide 9:

Energy level diagram for the p-n junction in thermal equilibrium E C E V E f p-type n-type E C E V E f Depletion region Hole Diffussion Hole Drift Electron Diffusion Electron Drift Neutral p-region Neutral n-region

Slide 10:

Thermal equilibrium; no applied field; no net current flow Drift current is due to electric field at the junction; minority carriers. Diffusion current is due the to concentration gradient; majority carriers.

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Proof

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The drift and diffusion currents are flowing all the time. But, in thermal equilibrium, the net current flow is zero since the currents oppose each other. Under non-equilibrium condition, one of the current flow mechanism is going to dominate over the other, resulting a net current flow. The electrons that want to diffuse from the n-type layer to the p-layer have potential barier. Proof

Slide 13:

The potential barrier height accross a p-n junction is known as the built in potential and also as the junction potential. The potential energy that this potential barrier correspond is p – n junction barrier height, Electron energy is positive upwards in the energy level diagrams, so electron potentials are going to be measured positive downwards. The hole energies and potentials are of course positive in the opposite directions to the electrons

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E C E V E f p-type n-type E C E V E f Depletion region E i E i Electrıon energy Electron potential p – n junction barrier height

Slide 15:

The intrinsic Fermi Level is a very useful reference level in a semiconductor. The p – n junction barrier height

Slide 16:

Current Mechanisms , Diffusion of the carriers cause an electric in DR. Drift current is due to the presence of electric field in DR. Diffusion current is due to the majority carriers. Drift current is due to the minority carriers. p – n junction in thermal equilibrium Electrıon energy + + + + + + + + + - - - - - - - - - - - - Neutral p-region Neutral n-region Hole Diffussion Electron Diffusion Electron Drift Hole Drift Field Direction Hole energuy E C E V E f DR

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n – p junction at equilibrium Electrıon energy + + + + + + + + + - - - - - - - - - - - - Neutral p-region Neutral n-region Hole Diffussion Electron Diffusion Electron Drift Hole Drift Field Direction Hole energuy E C E V E f DR

Slide 18:

When electrons and holes are diffusing from high concentration region to the low concentration region they both have a potential barrier. However, in drift case of minority carriers there is no potential barrier. Built in potential ; Diffusion :

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Depletion Approximation, Electric Field and Potential for pn junction + + + + + + - - - - - - - - p-type n-type Potential Electric field Charge density + + + + + + - - - - - - - - x x x Depletion Region At equilibrium, there is no bias, i.e. no applied voltage. The field takes the same sign as the charge The sign of the electric field is opposite to that of the potential ;

Slide 20:

Charge density is negative on p-side and positive on n-side. As seen from the previous diagram, the charge distribution is very nice and abrupt changes occur at the depletion region (DR) edges. Such a junction is called as an abrupt junction since the doping abruptly changes from p- to n-type at the metallurgical junction (ideal case). Depletion Approximation, Electric Field and Potential for pn junction

Slide 21:

In reality, the charge distribution tails-off into the neutral regions, i.e. the charge distrubition is not abrupt if one goes from depletion region into the neutral region. This region is called as a transition region and since the transition region is very thin, one can ignore the tail-off region and consider the change being abrupt. So this approximation is called as DEPLETION APPROXIMATION . Depletion Approximation, Electric Field and Potential for pn junction

Slide 22:

The electric field is zero at the edge of the DR and increases in negative direction. At junction charge changes its sign so do electric field and the magnitude of the field decreases (it increases positively). Electric Field Diagram : Potential Diagram : Since the electric field is negative through the whole depletion region ,DR , the potential will be positive through the DR . The potential increases slowly at left hand side but it increases rapidly on the right hand side . So the rate of increase of the potential is different an both sides of the metallurgical junction. This is due to the change of sign of charge at the junction. Depletion Approximation, Electric Field and Potential for pn junction

Slide 23:

+ + + + + + - - - - - - - - p-type n-type + + + + + + - - - - - - - - x x x Depletion Region Field direction is positive x direction Field direction Depletion Approximation, Electric Field and Potential for np junction Potential Electric field Charge density

Slide 24:

Abrupt junction + + + + + + - - - - - - - - p-type n-type Charge density + + + + + + - - - - - - - - x Depletion Region The amount of uncovered negative charge on the left hand side of the junction must be equal to the amount of positive charge on the right hand side of the metalurgical junction. Overall space-charge neutrality condition; w The higher doped side of the junction has the narrower depletion width

Slide 25:

x n and x p is the width of the depletion layer on the n-side and p-side of the junction, respectively. Unequal impurity concentration results an unequal depletion layer widths by means of the charge neutrality condition; Abrupt junction W = total depletion region

Slide 26:

Abrupt junction Depletion layer widths for n-side and p-side

Slide 27:

Abrupt junction

Slide 28:

Abrupt junction

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One-Sided abrupt p-n junction + + + + + + - - p-type n-type + + + + + + - - x + + + + + + - - - - - - - - Depletion Region Abrupt p-n junction heavily doped p-type

Slide 30:

One-Sided abrupt p-n junction neglegted since N A >>N D One-sided abrupt junction

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One-Sided abrupt p-n junction + + + + + + - - p-type n-type Potential Electric field Charge density + + + + + + - - x x x Electric field -x direction

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Appliying bias to p-n junction p n + - forward bias p n - + reverse bias How current flows through the p-n junction when a bias (voltage) is applied. The current flows all the time whenever a voltage source is connected to the diode. But the current flows rapidly in forward bias, however a very small constant current flows in reverse bias case.

Slide 33:

There is no turn-on voltage because current flows in any case. However , the turn-on voltage can be defined as the forward bias required to produce a given amount of forward current. If 1 m A is required for the circuit to work, 0.7 volt can be called as turn-on voltage. Appliying bias to p-n junction V b I 0 V b ; Breakdown voltage I 0 ; Reverse saturation current Forward Bias Reverse Bias I(current) V(voltage)

Slide 34:

Appliying bias to p-n junction + - - + p n p n p n + + + + - - - - + + - - + + + + - - - - Potential Energy Zero Bias Forward Bias Reverse Bias E c E v E v E v E c E c

Slide 35:

When a voltage is applied to a diode , bands move and the behaviour of the bands with applied forward and reverse fields are shown in previous diagram. Appliying bias to p-n junction

Slide 36:

Junction potential reduced Enhanced hole diffusion from p-side to n-side compared with the equilibrium case. Enhanced electron diffusion from n-side to p-side compared with the equilibrium case. Drift current flow is similar to the equilibrium case. Overall, a large diffusion current is able to flow. Mnemonic. Connect positive terminal to p-side for forward bias. Forward Bias Drift current is very similar to that of the equilibrium case. This current is due to the minority carriers on each side of the junction and the movement minority carriers is due to the built in field accross the depletion region.

Slide 37:

Junction potential increased Reduced hole diffusion from p-side to n-side compared with the equilibrium case. Reduced electron diffusion from n-side to p-side compared with the equilibrium case Drift current flow is similar to the equilibrium case. Overall a very small reverse saturation current flows. Mnemonic. Connect positive terminal to n-side for reverse bias. Reverse Bias

Slide 38:

Qualitative explanation of forward bias + - p n + + - - p n p no n po np p-n junction in forward bias Junction potential is reduced from V bi to V bi -V F. By forward biasing a large number of electrons are injected from n-side to p-side accross the depletion region and these electrons become minority carriers on p-side , and the minority recombine with majority holes so that the number of injected minority electrons decreases (decays) exponentially with distance into the p-side. Carrier Density

Slide 39:

Similarly, by forward biasing a large number of holes are injected from p-side to n-side across the DR. These holes become minority carriers at the depletion region edge at the n-side so that their number (number of injected excess holes) decreases with distance into the neutral n-side. In summary, by forward biasing in fact one injects minority carriers to the opposite sides. These injected minorites recombine with majorities. Qualitative explanation of forward bias

Slide 40:

How does current flow occur if all the injected minorities recombine with majorities ? If there is no carrier; no current flow occurs. Consider the role of ohmic contacts at both ends of p-n junction. The lost majority carriers are replaced by the majority carriers coming in from ohmic contacts to maintain the charge neutrality. The sum of the hole and electron currents flowing through the ohmic contacts makes up the total current flowing through the external circuit. Qualitative explanation of forward bias

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“o” subscript denotes the equilibrium carrier concentration. Ideal diode equation

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At equilibrium case ( no bias ) Ideal diode equation

Slide 43:

Ideal diode equation

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Ideal diode equation This equation gives us the equilibrium majority carrier concentration.

Slide 45:

Ideal diode equation What happens when a voltage appears across the p-n junction ? Equations (3) and (4) still valid but you should drop (0) subscript and change V bi with V bi – V F if a forward bias is applied. V bi + V R if a reverse bias is applied. V F : forward voltage V R : reverse voltage With these biases, the carrier densities change from equilibrium carrier densities to non- equilibrium carrier densities.

Slide 46:

Ideal diode equation Non-equilibrium majority carrier concentration in forward bias; When a voltage is applied; the equilibrium n no changes to the non equilibrium n n.

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Assumption; low level injection For low level injection; the number of injected minorities is much less than the number of the majorities. That is the injected minority carriers do not upset the majority carrier equilibrium densities. Non equilibrium electron concentration in n-type when a forward bias is applied ,

Slide 48:

Ideal diode equation

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Ideal diode equation Solving for non-equilibrium electron concentration in p-type material, i.e. n p

Slide 50:

Ideal diode equation

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Forward-bias diode; injection of minority carriers across DR + - p n + + - - B p no n po A n no p po l n l p When a forward bias is applied; majority carriers are injected across DR and appear as a minority carrier at the edge of DR on opposite side. These minorities will diffuse in field free opposite-region towards ohmic contact. Since ohmic contact is a long way away, minority carriers decay exponentially with distance in this region until it reaches to its equilibrium value.

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Exponential decay of injected minority carriers on opposite sides The excess injected minorities decay exponentially as

Slide 53:

Number of Injected Minority Holes Across The Depletion Region By means of forward-biasing a p-n junction diode, the holes diffuse from left to right accross the DR and they become minority carriers. These holes recombine with majority electrons when they are moving towards ohmic constants. So, the number of minority holes on the n-region decreases exponentially towards the ohmic contact. The number of injected minority holes;excess holes; Distance into then region from the Depletion Region Diffusion Length for holes

Slide 54:

Number of Injected Minority Holes Across The Depletion Region

Slide 55:

Ideal diode equation Similarly by means of forward biasing a p-n junction, the majority electrons are injected from right to left across the Depletion Region. These injected electrons become minorities at the Depletion Region edge on the p-side, and they recombine with the majority holes. When they move into the neutral p-side, the number of injected excess electrons decreases exponentially.

Slide 56:

Ideal diode equation

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Ideal diode equation Ideal diode equation This equation is valid for both forward and reverse biases; just change the sign of V.

Slide 58:

Ideal diode equation Change V with –V for reverse bias. When qV>a few kT ; exponential term goes to zero as V B I 0 V B ; Breakdown voltage I 0 ; Reverse saturation current Forward Bias Reverse Bias Reverse saturation current Current Voltage

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Forward bias current densities + - p n l n =0 l p =0 Ohmic contact Current density J total is constant through the whole diode. Minority current densities decreases exponentially into the the neutral sides whereas the current densities due to the majorities increase into the neutral sides.

Slide 60:

p-n junction in reverse bias Depletion region gets bigger with increasing reverse bias. Reverse bias prevents large diffusion current to flow through the diode. However; reverse bias doesn’t prevent the small current flow due to the minority carrier. The presence of large electric field across the DR extracts almost all the minority holes from the n-region and minority electrons from the p-region. This flow of minority carriers across the junction constitudes I 0, the reverse saturation current. These minorities are generated thermally. - + p n l n =0 l p =0 Current density Carrier density p n n p p no n po

Slide 61:

p-n junction in reverse bias The flow of these minorities produces the reverse saturation current and this current increases exponentially with temperature but it is independent of applied reverse voltage. V b I 0 V B ; Breakdown voltage I 0 ; Reverse saturation current Forward Bias Reverse Bias Drift current I(current) V(voltage)

Slide 62:

Junction breakdown or reverse breakdown An applied reverse bias (voltage) will result in a small current to flow through the device. At a particular high voltage value, which is called as breakdown voltage V B , large currents start to flow. If there is no current limiting resistor which is connected in series to the diode, the diode will be destroyed. There are two physical effects which cause this breakdown. Zener breakdown is observed in highly doped p-n junctions and occurs for voltages of about 5 V or less. Avalanche breakdown is observed in less highly doped p-n junctions.

Slide 63:

Zener breakdown Zener breakdown occurs at highly doped p-n junctions with a tunneling mechanism. In a highly doped p-n junction the conduction and valance bands on opposite side of the junction become so close during the reverse-bias that the electrons on the p-side can tunnel from directly VB into the CB on the n-side.

Slide 64:

Avalanche Breakdown Avalanche breakdown mechanism occurs when electrons and holes moving through the DR and acquire sufficient energy from the electric field to break a bond i.e. create electron-hole pairs by colliding with atomic electrons within the depletion region. The newly created electrons and holes move in opposite directions due to the electric field and thereby add to the existing reverse bias current . This is the most important breakdown mechanism in p-n junction.

Slide 65:

Depletion Capacitance When a reverse bias is applied to p-n junction diode, the depletion region width, W, increases. This cause an increase in the number of the uncovered space charge in depletion region. Whereas when a forward bias is applied depletion region width of the p-n junction diode decreases so the amount of the uncovered space charge decreases as well. So the p-n junction diode behaves as a device in which the amount of charge in depletion region depends on the voltage across the device. So it looks like a capacitor with a capacitance.

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Depletion Capacitance Capacitance of a diode varies with W (Depletion Region width) W (DR width varies width applied voltage V ) Charge stored in coloumbs Voltage across the capacitor in volts Capacitance in farads

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Depletion Capacitance

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Depletion Capacitance

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Depletion Capacitance

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