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There are many versions of operating systems, each having their own features.PowerPoint Presentation: The operating system performs Four Main Functions: 1. Provides a user interface 2. Manages files 3. Manages applications 4. Manages hardwareFig 2-1: Fig 2-1PowerPoint Presentation: The Two Main Components of the Operating System are: The Kernel and The ShellPowerPoint Presentation: The kernel is the core of the operating system. It provides access to hardware. The shell provides an interface to the user and manages applications.PowerPoint Presentation: The shell made up of subsystems The shell operates in user mode Subsystems have limited access to system information and can access hardware only through other OS services Win32 security subsystemKernel:: Kernel: More power to communicate with hardware devices than the shell has Operates in kernel mode Applications cannot get to hardware devices without the shell passing those requests to the kernel Two main components The HAL (hardware abstraction layer) Executive services interfacePowerPoint Presentation: A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e Figure 2-10 Inside an operating system, different components perform various functions Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage LearningPowerPoint Presentation: C. The operating system also contains: a. Utility programs b. Drivers that allow it to communicate with hardware c. Configuration Data and User PreferencesD. Common Operating Systems: D. Common Operating Systems DOS Windows 9x Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Vista Unix Linux Mac OSE. Historical Perspective-Starting with DOS (disk operating system): E. Historical Perspective-Starting with DOS (disk operating system) First OS used by IBM computers/compatibles Command line driven set of programs Outdated as desktop computer operating system Still available on troubleshooting disks or CDsDOS with Windows 3.X: DOS with Windows 3.X Refers to Windows 3.1 and windows 3.11 Uses DOS as the operating system Provides user friendly intermediate program between: DOS, applications, and the userDOS with Windows 3.X (cont): A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e DOS with Windows 3.X (cont) Long lasting features provided: Graphical user interface (GUI) Windows desktop Windows concept Ability to keep more than one application open at the same timePowerPoint Presentation: A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e Figure 2-3 Windows 3.x was layered between DOS and the user and applications to provide a graphics interface for the user and a multitasking environment for applications Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage LearningWindows 9x/ME: A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e Windows 9x/ME Refers to Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me True operating system Combines DOS core with GUIWindows NT: A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e Windows NT Two versions of Windows NT (New Technology): Windows NT Workstation for desktops Windows NT Server to control a networkPowerPoint Presentation: Microsoft completely rewrote OS core Totally eliminates DOS core Introduced many new problems First Windows OS using 32 bits at a timeWindows 2000: A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e Windows 2000 Upgrades Windows NT (desktop and server) Came in several versions Popular desktop OS Targeted towards corporate environment Not backward compatiblePowerPoint Presentation: Improvements Stable environment, Plug and Play support Device Manager, Recovery Console, Active Directory Better network support Features specifically targeting notebook computersWindows XP: A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e Windows XP Integrates Windows 9x/Me and Windows 2000 Two main versions: Home Edition and Professional Adds advanced security, such as Windows FirewallPowerPoint Presentation: Noteworthy new features: Allows multiple users to log on simultaneously Each with their own applications open Incorporates Windows Messenger and Media PlayerPowerPoint Presentation: Stable Service pack: major update or fix to an OS Patch: minor fixWindows Vista: A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e Windows Vista Upgrade from Windows XP Comes in four common versions: Home Basic; Home Premium; Business and Ultimate Aero user interface New 3D user interface (not available on Home Basic)PowerPoint Presentation: Windows XP Start button Replaced by Vista sphere with a Windows flag Complaints Lack of backward compatibility Computer resources required Slow performanceWindows 7: A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e Windows 7 Next generation of Microsoft OS Should correct Vista complaints Expected to run on netbooks Low-end inexpensive laptop Small 9- or 10-inch screen, no optical drive Generally used for Web browsing, e-mail, word processingF. How an OS Provides a User Interface: F. How an OS Provides a User Interface Command-driven interfaces Menu-driven interfaces Icon-driven interfaces (or a combination of icons and menus)G. How an OS Manages Hardware: G. How an OS Manages Hardware Uses device drivers or the BIOS to interface with hardware Most devices are managed with device drivers rather than BIOS BIOS provides basic functions, drivers provide enhanced featuresHow an OS Manages Hardware (continued) Fig 2-12: How an OS Manages Hardware ( continued ) Fig 2-12H. 32 and 64 Bit Operating Systems: H. 32 and 64 Bit Operating Systems The introduction of the Windows Professional x64 edition ushered in a new era in operating systems- the 64 operating systems. Both Vista and Windows 7 join XP in having both a 32 and 64 bit version.PowerPoint Presentation: The introduction of the 64-bit operating system was in response to the introduction of CPUs that could process 64 bits of information at a time. All data and information processed by the CPU is done so in binary format- a string of 1s and 0s.PowerPoint Presentation: The binary numbering system is convenient for use in computers because electronic switches and other devices can be caused to be set in an “on” or “off” position- thus representing a 1 or a 0.PowerPoint Presentation: Early CPUs were designed to handle one eight bit string of data a time and were quickly replaced by those that could handle 16 bits. Early disk operating system versions were 16 bit to match the CPU’ s capability.PowerPoint Presentation: BOTH the 32-bit operating system AND the 32-bit CPU are referred to using the term x86.PowerPoint Presentation: A 64-bit operating system sends 64-bits of data to the CPU. A 64-bit operating system is referred to with the term x64.PowerPoint Presentation: A 64-bit processor (CPU) can handle 64 bits of data at time. The term IA64 is used to represent a 64-bit CPU.PowerPoint Presentation: The term X86-64 refers to a 32-bit CPU that can handle a 64-bit operating system. THis type of CPU would have two 32-bit “cores” and each core handles 32-bits.PowerPoint Presentation: As technology advanced, so did the ability of the CPU to handle more data at a time. Windows NT 3.5 released in 1994 was the first 32-bit operating system.PowerPoint Presentation: Windows 95 and Windows 98 were “hybrid” operating systems in that they operated in both 16-bit and 32-bit mode. Win XP Professional x64 edition was the first operating system to operate with 64 bits at a time.I. How an OS Uses Device Drivers: I. How an OS Uses Device Drivers Device drivers provide OS with software necessary to control devices 16-bit real-mode drivers Supported by Windows 95/98 32-bit protected-mode drivers Supported by Windows 95/98, Windows Me, and Windows NT/2000/XPCPU Modes:: CPU Modes: #1: Real Mode: In real mode, a processor processes 16-bits of data at one time. This is the original operating mode of the CPU. Real mode processing allows access to all hardware by all programs.PowerPoint Presentation: Real mode drivers are used by the operating system to access the hardware. Real mode is considered obsolete today.PowerPoint Presentation: #2. Protected Mode: This is a 32-bit mode in which the CPU physically isolates areas of memory to prevent illegal writes to other programs running in memory at the same time.PowerPoint Presentation: Within the operating system, 32-bit protected mode drivers interface with the the kernel and the kernel provides access to the hardware. When 32-bit mode was perfected, the number of system crashes was significantly reduced.PowerPoint Presentation: A 32-bit protected-mode driver cooperates with “protected” areas of memory by allowing the operating system and CPU to control access to memory and also to hardware.PowerPoint Presentation: #3. Virtual real mode: Basically means running a real mode program from within a 32-bit protected mode environment. This mode was introduced to allow backward compatibility with legacy programs that must use real mode.PowerPoint Presentation: #4. Long Mode : In Long Mode , the CPU processes 64 bits at a time. 64-bit applications use “64-mode” from within Long Mode. 32-bit applications use “Compatibility Mode.”PowerPoint Presentation: Thus, 64-bit mode and compatibility mode are subsets of long mode. Some 32-bit programs can make use of 64-bit mode after they have been re-compiled. This may make them run faster.J. Managing Files:: J. Managing Files: The operating system has a built in organizational method for managing files and data. This organizational method is called the file system . There are two main file systems: FAT and NTFS.Managing Applications: Managing Applications Applications are written either by the operating system manufacturer (such as the Microsoft Office Suite) or by third party vendors (such as Adobe).PowerPoint Presentation: The applications are written for specific operating systems. Installation, launching, and interfacing with the application are part of the operating system’s duties. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.