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Property Rights?Slide 3: Some entity had to be able to make decisions that were binding on everyone That entity became the GovernmentThree choices: Three choices The The The Church State PeopleThe Church?: The Church? Church law is state law Saudi Arabia’s constitution, adopted in 1992, begins by stating, “ The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a sovereign Arab Islamic state with Islam as its religion; God's Book and the Sunnah of His Prophet , God's prayers and peace be upon him, are its constitution .”Slide 6: Must be a practicing member of ruling church to hold office Article 3 of Syria’s Constitution states that “The religion of the President of the Republic has to be Islam.” State is “arm” of the church The constitution of Afghanistan, adopted in 2004, states that, “ In Afghanistan, no law can be contrary to the beliefs and provisions of the sacred religion of Islam”, and mandates that the Courts decide issues based on Hanafi jurisprudenceThe State?: The State? Churches are closed or strictly regulated From the British newspaper, The Telegraph , 4/18/11: “47 Shouwang (church) members who tried to worship in an open air public space on Sunday were detained and all the church's pastors and leaders were put under house arrest or in detention …some church members had lost their homes or jobs amid an official campaign to shut down the church. While China's Constitution guarantees freedom of religion, Christians are required to worship in churches run by state-controlled organisations , the Three-Self Patriotic Movement for Protestants and the Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association for Catholics.Slide 8: An individual only is a “citizen” if the government declares him to be Reich Citizenship Law, September 15, 1935 The Reichstag has unanimously enacted the following law, which is promulgated herewith: § 1 A subject of the State is a person who enjoys the protection of the German Reich and who in consequence has specific obligations towards it. The status of subject of the State is acquired in accordance with the provisions of the Reich and State Citizenship Law. § 2 A Reich citizen is a subject of the State who is of German or related blood, who proves by his conduct that he is willing and fit faithfully to serve the German people and Reich. Reich citizenship is acquired through the granting of a Reich Citizenship Certificate. The Reich citizen is the sole bearer of full political rights in accordance with the Law. § 3 The Reich Minister of the Interior, in coordination with the Deputy of the Führer will issue the Legal and Administrative orders required to implement and complete this Law. Nuremberg, September 15, 1935, at the Reich Party Congress of Freedom The Führer and Reich Chancellor Adolf Hitler The Reich Minister of the Interior FrickSlide 9: Only government-recognized “citizens” have rights; all others are property of the state From a Speech by Andrew Gregorovich , Senior Researcher, Ukrainian Canadian Research & Documentation Centre, Toronto November 1998 The most intelligent and best farmers [in the Ukraine] -- were labeled kulaks by the Soviet government, their land and animals were confiscated and they were exiled to Siberia or executed. … on August 7, 1932 the law on the protection of state property was established. If you took a single ear of wheat from a collective farm -- you could be shot -- and there were people who suffered this fate.Slide 10: On December 6, 1932 a Soviet decree proclaimed a complete blockade of villages for allegedly sabotaging grain procurement. Moscow sent an army of agents, who were communist party members and mostly from Russia, into Ukraine. With the help of the Red Army and the GPU Soviet Secret Police Ukrainian villages were surrounded and every scrap of food in the village was confiscated including even bread baking in ovens.Slide 11: We know it was especially directed against Ukraine because just over the border in Russia the famine did not exist. Many starving Ukrainians attempted to go to Russia for food but were stopped at the border. People trying to carry food into Ukraine were stopped and the food was confiscated.Slide 12: Stalin told Churchill in 1942 that there were ten million victims.The People?: The People? Authority comes only from the majority of those participating in each decision Athenian Democracy Averaged 10 to 20% participation rates Distance from countryside to city (limited rural participants) Inability to skip work (limited farmers, self-employed) Military service (limited military) Settlement abroad Disinterest To attain quorum: Fined non-attendees Paid attendeesSlide 14: No limits on what “the people” decide Trial of the Athenian Generals after Arginousai A violent storm caused shipwrecks after an Athenian victory at Arginousai Eight generals did not rescue the men in the foundering ships Six of the generals returned to Athens and were put on trial before the Assembly. They were tried and convicted, as a group, and executed. Socrates objected, saying that it was illegal to try people as a group instead of as individuals. The Assembly arrested those who had accused the generals.Not just a “pure” democracy: Not just a “pure” democracySlide 16: SOMEBODY HAS TO BE IN CHARGE TO HAVE THE POWER TO MAKE DECISIONS AND ENFORCE THEMStruggle for Power is a Constant in History: Struggle for Power is a Constant in History Between nations = war Within nations = unrest, rebellion, revolution You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.