Biochips

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biochips

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POORNIMA INSTITUTE OF ENGG. & TECH. THE BIOCHIPS –Implant system PRESENTED BY: SHRIYA JAIN 1 ST YEAR EE www.powerpointpresentationon.blogspot.com

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contents INTRODUCTION THE BIOCHIP TECHNOLOGY BIOCHIP IMPLANT SYSTEM WORKING OF A BIOCHIP APPLICATIONS CONSTRAINTS & SOLUTION CONCLUSION

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INTRODUCTION Biochips are microprocessor chips-an outcome of the fields of Computer Science, Electronics & Biology. Developed in 1983 for monitoring fisheries. The major biochip companies are A.V.I.D. (American Veterinary Identification Devices), Trovan Identification Systems, and Destron-Fearing Corporation. Its a bio-security device to accurately track information regarding what a person is doing, and who is actually doing it. A single electronic card may replace everything in your wallet including, your cash, your credit cards, your ATM card, your ID cards, your insurance, medical records.

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THE BIOCHIP TECHNOLOGY Biochip implant is basically a small (micro) computer chip, inserted under the skin, for identification purposes. The biochip system is radio frequency identification (RFID) system, using low-frequency radio signals to communicate between the biochip and reader. +

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THE BIOCHIP IMPLANT SYSTEM THE BIOCHIP IMPLANT SYSTEM CONSISTS OF TWO COMPONENTS: PERSPECTIVE OF THE ACTUAL SIZE THE TRANSPONDER THE READER

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THE TRANSPONDER The transponder is the actual biochip implant. It is passive -contains no battery or energy of its own. Being Passive, it has a very long life, up to 99 years, and no maintenance. It's inactive until the reader activates it by sending it a low-power electrical charge.

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The biochip transponder consists of four parts: Computer Microchip: It stores a unique identification number from 10-15 digits long. The storage capacity of the current microchips is capable of storing only a single ID number. The unique ID number is permanently "etched" or encoded via a laser onto the surface of the microchip before assembly. It contains electronic circuitry necessary to transmit the ID number to the "reader".

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2 . Antenna Coil: A simple coil of copper wire around a ferrite or iron core. It’s a tiny, primitive, radio antenna that "receives and sends" signals from the reader or scanner. 3 . Tuning Capacitor: It stores the small electrical charge sent by the reader or scanner. Charge activates the transponder to send back the ID number encoded in the computer chip. It is tuned to same frequency as reader.

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BIOCHIP AND SYRINGE Glass Capsule: A small capsule - 11 mm in length and 2 mm in diameter, about the size of an uncooked grain of rice that "houses" the microchip, antenna coil and capacitor. Made of biocompatible material (i.e. soda lime glass) and is hermetically (air-tight) sealed. Polypropylene polymer sheath is attached to one end of the capsule to provide a compatible surface with which the bodily tissue fibers bond or interconnect, resulting in a permanent placement of the biochip. The biochip is inserted into the subject with a hypodermic syringe

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THE READER It consists of : An "exciter" coil which creates an EM field that, via radio signals, provides the necessary energy (less than 1/1000 of a watt) to "excite" or "activate" the implanted biochip. A receiving coil that receives the ID number sent back from the "activated" implanted biochip. This all takes place very fast, in milliseconds. The reader also contains the software and components to decode the received code and display the result in an LCD display.

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WORKING OF A BIOCHIP The reader generates a low-power, electromagnetic field, via radio signals, which "activates" the implanted biochip. This "activation" enables the biochip to send the ID code back to the reader via radio signals. The reader amplifies the received code, converts it to digital format, decodes and displays the ID number on the reader's LCD display. The reader must normally be between 2 and 12 inches near the biochip to communicate. The reader and biochip can communicate through most materials, except metal.

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APPLICATIONS 3. A biochip leads to a secured E-Commerce systems : Payment system, authentication procedures may all be done with Biochips leading to security. 1. Enables tracing, of a person/animal anywhere in the world: Once the reader is connected to the internet, satellite and a centralized database is maintained about the ‘biochipped’ creatures . 2. Stores and updates financial, medical, demographic data about a person: The powered biochip systems can replace cash, passports, medical & other records. A ‘biochipped’ health insurance card .

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4. Medicinal implementations of Biochips : Biochip as glucose detector: It can be integrated with a glucose detector which allows diabetics to easily monitor the level of the sugar glucose in their blood. Biochip as oxygen sensor: The biochipped oxygen sensor will be useful not only to monitor breathing in intensive care units, but also to check that packages of food, or containers of semiconductors stored under nitrogen gas, remain airtight. Biochip as blood pressure sensor: An integration of Pressure (Blood Flow) detecting circuits with the Biochip can make the chip to continuously monitor the blood flow rate.

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constraints The Lock: Problem before the world A chip implant would contain a person’s financial world, medical history, health care — it would contain his electronic life". If cash no longer existed and if the world’s economy was totally chip oriented; — there would be a huge "black-market" for chips! Since there is no cash and no other bartering system, criminals would cut off hands and heads, stealing "rich-folks" chips.

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KEY TO THE CONSTRAINTS Existing model of biochips contains only ROM component which accommodates data such as passport number, bankcard number etc. The solution is-Induction of RAM component in addition to ROM. RAM needs to be continuously charged in order to retain data. Current is supplied from electrical energy produced in the cells or by converting heat in our body to electrical energy. Once if the chip is taken out from the body, RAM immediately loses the power supply, thus, loosing the information & making it useless for the kidnappers. This technique will not affect the data in the ROM.

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CONCLUSION The future which we imagine of, the CYBER FUTURE will have the BIOCHIP IMPLANT SYSTEM as an integral component to satisfy the ever growing human needs.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: 

BIBLIOGRAPHY www.wikipedia.com www.biochip.com Encarta Encyclopedia Google Images

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JAI JAI POORNIMA SANSTHAN: 

JAI JAI POORNIMA SANSTHAN