Information Security-lekcija 6

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Learning Objectives:

Learning Objectives Upon completion of this material, you should be able to: Discuss the important role of access control in computer-based information systems, and identify and discuss widely used authentication factors Describe firewall technology and the various approaches to firewall implementation Identify the various approaches to control remote and dial-up access by authenticating and authorizing users 2

Learning Objectives (cont’d):

Learning Objectives (cont’d) Discuss content filtering technology Describe virtual private networks and discuss the technology that enables them 3


Introduction Technical controls are essential in enforcing policy for many IT functions not under direct human control. When properly implemented, technical control solutions improve an organization’s ability to balance the objectives of making information readily available and preserving information’s confidentiality and integrity. 4

Access Control:

Access Control Access control: method by which systems determine whether and how to admit a user into a trusted area of the organization Mandatory access controls (MACs): use data classification schemes Discretionary access controls (DACs): allow users to control and possibly provide access to information/resources at their disposal Nondiscretionary controls: strictly enforced version of MACs that are managed by a central authority 5

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Identification Identification: mechanism whereby unverified entities seeking access to a resource (supplicants) provide a label by which they are known to the system Identifiers can be composite identifiers, concatenating elements—department codes, random numbers, or special characters—to make them unique. Some organizations generate random numbers. 7


Authentication Authentication: the process of validating a supplicant’s purported identity Authentication factors Something a supplicant knows Password: a private word or a combination of characters that only the user should know Passphrase: a series of characters, typically longer than a password, from which a virtual password is derived 8

Authentication (cont’d):

Authentication (cont’d) Authentication factors (cont’d) Something a supplicant has Dumb card: ID or ATM card with magnetic stripe Smart card: contains a computer chip that can verify and validate information Synchronous tokens Asynchronous tokens Something a supplicant is Relies upon individual characteristics Strong authentication 9


Authorization Authorization: the matching of an authenticated entity to a list of information assets and corresponding access levels Authorization can be handled in one of three ways: Authorization for each authenticated user Authorization for members of a group Authorization across multiple systems Authorization tickets 10


Accountability Accountability (auditability): ensures that all actions on a system—authorized or unauthorized—can be attributed to an authenticated identity Most often accomplished by means of system logs and database journals, and the auditing of these records Systems logs record specific information. Logs have many uses. 11


Biometrics Approach based on the use of measurable human characteristics/traits to authenticate identity Only fingerprints, retina of eye, and iris of eye are considered truly unique. Evaluated on false reject rate, false accept rate, and crossover error rate Highly reliable/effective biometric systems are often considered intrusive by users. 12

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Access Control Architecture Models:

Access Control Architecture Models Illustrate access control implementations and can help organizations quickly make improvements through adaptation Trusted computing base (TCB) Part of TCSEC Rainbow Series Used to enforce security policy (rules of system configuration) Biggest challenges include covert channels Storage channels Timing channels 15

Access Control Architecture Models (cont’d):

Access Control Architecture Models (cont’d) ITSEC: an international set of criteria for evaluating computer systems Compares Targets of Evaluation (ToE) to detailed security function specifications The Common Criteria Considered successor to both TCSEC and ITSEC Bell-LaPadula Confidentiality Model Model of an automated system able to manipulate its state or status over time Biba Integrity Model Based on “no write up, no read down” principle 16

Access Control Architecture Models (cont’d):

Access Control Architecture Models (cont’d) Clark-Wilson Integrity Model No changes by unauthorized subjects No unauthorized changes by authorized subjects Maintenance of internal and external consistency Graham-Denning Access Control Model Composed of set of objects, set of subjects, and set of rights Harrison-Ruzzo-Ullman Model Defines method to allow changes to access rights and addition/removal of subjects/objects Brewer-Nash Model (Chinese Wall) Designed to prevent conflict of interest between two parties Principles of Information Security, Fifth Edition 17


Firewalls Prevent specific types of information from moving between an untrusted network (the Internet) and a trusted network (organization’s internal network) May be: Separate computer system Software service running on existing router or server Separate network containing supporting devices 18

Firewalls Processing Modes:

Firewalls Processing Modes Five processing modes by which firewalls can be categorized: Packet filtering Application gateways Circuit gateways MAC layer firewalls Hybrids 19

Packet-Filtering Firewalls:

Packet-Filtering Firewalls Packet-filtering firewalls examine the header information of data packets. Most often based on the combination of: IP source and destination address Direction (inbound or outbound) Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or User Datagram Protocol (UDP) source and destination port requests Simple firewall models enforce rules designed to prohibit packets with certain addresses or partial addresses from passing through device. 20

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Packet-Filtering Firewalls (cont’d):

Packet-Filtering Firewalls (cont’d) Three subsets of packet-filtering firewalls: Static filtering: requires that filtering rules be developed and installed within the firewall Dynamic filtering: allows firewall to react to emergent event and update or create rules to deal with event Stateful inspection: firewalls that keep track of each network connection between internal and external systems using a state table 25

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Application Layer Firewall:

Application Layer Firewall Frequently installed on a dedicated computer; also known as a proxy server Since proxy server is often placed in unsecured area of the network (e.g., DMZ), it is exposed to higher levels of risk from less trusted networks. Additional filtering routers can be implemented behind the proxy server, further protecting internal systems. 27

Firewall Processing Modes (cont’d):

Firewall Processing Modes (cont’d) MAC layer firewalls Designed to operate at media access control sublayer of network’s data link layer Make filtering decisions based on specific host computer’s identity MAC addresses of specific host computers are linked to access control list (ACL) entries that identify specific types of packets that can be sent to each host; all other traffic is blocked. 28

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Firewall Processing Modes (cont’d):

Firewall Processing Modes (cont’d) Hybrid firewalls Combine elements of other types of firewalls, that is, elements of packet filtering and proxy services, or of packet filtering and circuit gateways Alternately, may consist of two separate firewall devices; each a separate firewall system, but connected to work in tandem Enables an organization to make security improvement without completely replacing existing firewalls 30

Firewall Architectures :

Firewall Architectures Firewall devices can be configured in several network connection architectures. Best configuration depends on three factors: Objectives of the network Organization’s ability to develop and implement architectures Budget available for function Four common architectural implementations of firewalls: packet-filtering routers, dual-homed firewalls (bastion hosts), screened host firewalls, screened subnet firewalls 31

Firewall Architectures (cont’d):

Firewall Architectures (cont’d) Packet-filtering routers Most organizations with Internet connection have a router at the boundary between internal networks and external service provider. Many of these routers can be configured to reject packets that the organization does not allow into its network. Drawbacks include a lack of auditing and strong authentication. 32

Firewall Architectures (cont’d):

Firewall Architectures (cont’d) Bastion hosts Commonly referred to as sacrificial host, as it stands as sole defender on the network perimeter Contains two network interface cards (NICs): one connected to external network, one connected to internal network Implementation of this architecture often makes use of network address translation (NAT), creating another barrier to intrusion from external attackers. 33

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Principles of Information Security, Fifth Edition

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Firewall Architectures (cont’d):

Firewall Architectures (cont’d) Screened host firewalls Combines packet-filtering router with separate, dedicated firewall such as an application proxy server Allows router to prescreen packets to minimize traffic/load on internal proxy Requires external attack to compromise two separate systems before attack can access internal data 36

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Firewall Architectures (cont’d):

Firewall Architectures (cont’d) Screened subnet firewall (with DMZ) Is the dominant architecture used today Commonly consists of two or more internal bastion hosts behind packet-filtering router, with each host protecting a trusted network: Connections from outside or untrusted network are routed through external filtering router. Connections from outside or untrusted network are routed into and out of routing firewall to separate the network segment known as DMZ. Connections into trusted internal network are allowed only from DMZ bastion host servers. 38

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Firewall Architectures (cont’d):

Firewall Architectures (cont’d) Screened subnet performs two functions: Protects DMZ systems and information from outside threats Protects the internal networks by limiting how external connections can gain access to internal systems Another facet of DMZs: extranets 41

Firewall Architectures (cont’d):

Firewall Architectures (cont’d) SOCKS servers SOCKS is the protocol for handling TCP traffic via a proxy server. A proprietary circuit-level proxy server that places special SOCKS client-side agents on each workstation A SOCKS system can require support and management resources beyond those of traditional firewalls. 42

Selecting the Right Firewall:

Selecting the Right Firewall When selecting the firewall, consider a number of factors: What firewall technology offers right balance between protection and cost for the needs of organization? Which features are included in the base price and which are not? Ease of setup and configuration? How accessible are staff technicians who can configure the firewall? Can firewall adapt to organization’s growing network? Second most important issue is cost. 43

Configuring and Managing Firewalls :

Configuring and Managing Firewalls The organization must provide for the initial configuration and ongoing management of firewall(s). Each firewall device must have its own set of configuration rules regulating its actions. Firewall policy configuration is usually complex and difficult. Configuring firewall policies is both an art and a science . When security rules conflict with the performance of business, security often loses. 44

Configuring and Managing Firewalls (cont’d):

Configuring and Managing Firewalls (cont’d) Best practices for firewalls All traffic from the trusted network is allowed out. Firewall device is never directly accessed from public network. Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) data are allowed to pass through firewall. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) data are denied Telnet access to internal servers should be blocked. When Web services are offered outside the firewall, HTTP traffic should be blocked from reaching internal networks. All data not verifiably authentic should be denied. 45

Configuring and Managing Firewalls (cont’d):

Configuring and Managing Firewalls (cont’d) Firewall rules Firewalls operate by examining data packets and performing comparison with predetermined logical rules. The logic is based on a set of guidelines most commonly referred to as firewall rules, rule base, or firewall logic. Most firewalls use packet header information to determine whether specific packet should be allowed or denied. 46

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Content Filters:

Content Filters Software filter—not a firewall—that allows administrators to restrict content access from within a network Essentially a set of scripts or programs restricting user access to certain networking protocols/Internet locations Primary purpose to restrict internal access to external material Most common content filters restrict users from accessing non-business Web sites or deny incoming spam. 50

Protecting Remote Connections:

Protecting Remote Connections Installing Internetwork connections requires leased lines or other data channels; these connections are usually secured under the requirements of a formal service agreement. When individuals seek to connect to an organization’s network, a more flexible option must be provided. Options such as virtual private networks (VPNs) have become more popular due to the spread of Internet. Principles of Information Security, Fifth Edition 51

Remote Access:

Remote Access Unsecured, dial-up connection points represent a substantial exposure to attack. Attacker can use a device called a war dialer to locate the connection points. War dialer: automatic phone-dialing program that dials every number in a configured range and records number if modem picks up Some technologies (RADIUS systems; TACACS; CHAP password systems) have improved the authentication process. Principles of Information Security, Fifth Edition 52

Remote Access (cont’d):

Remote Access (cont’d) RADIUS, Diameter, and TACACS Systems that authenticate user credentials for those trying to access an organization’s network via dial-up Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS): centralizes responsibility for user authentication in a central RADIUS server Diameter: emerging alternative derived from RADIUS Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS): validates user’s credentials at centralized server (like RADIUS); based on client/server configuration Principles of Information Security, Fifth Edition 53

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Remote Access (cont’d):

Remote Access (cont’d) Kerberos Provides secure third-party authentication Uses symmetric key encryption to validate individual user to various network resources Keeps database containing private keys of clients/servers Consists of three interacting services: Authentication server (AS) Key Distribution Center (KDC) Kerberos ticket granting service (TGS) 55

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Principles of Information Security, Fifth Edition 57

Remote Access (cont’d):

Remote Access (cont’d) SESAME Secure European System for Applications in a Multivendor Environment (SESAME) is similar to Kerberos. User is first authenticated to authentication server and receives token. Token is then presented to a privilege attribute server as proof of identity to gain privilege attribute certificate. Uses public key encryption; adds sophisticated access control features; more scalable encryption systems; improved manageability; auditing features; and options for delegation of responsibility for allowing access 58

Virtual Private Networks (VPNs):

Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) Private and secure network connection between systems; uses data communication capability of unsecured and public network Securely extends organization’s internal network connections to remote locations Three VPN technologies defined: Trusted VPN Secure VPN Hybrid VPN (combines trusted and secure) 59

Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) (cont’d):

Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) (cont’d) VPN must accomplish: Encapsulation of incoming and outgoing data Encryption of incoming and outgoing data Authentication of remote computer and perhaps remote user as well In most common implementation, it allows the user to turn Internet into a private network. 60

Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) (cont’d):

Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) (cont’d) Transport mode Data within IP packet is encrypted, but header information is not. Allows user to establish secure link directly with remote host, encrypting only data contents of packet Two popular uses: End-to-end transport of encrypted data Remote access worker connects to office network over Internet by connecting to a VPN server on the perimeter. 61

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Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) (cont’d):

Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) (cont’d) Tunnel mode Establishes two perimeter tunnel servers to encrypt all traffic that will traverse unsecured network Entire client package encrypted and added as data portion of packet from one tunneling server to another Primary benefit to this model is that an intercepted packet reveals nothing about the true destination system. Example of tunnel mode VPN: Microsoft’s Internet Security and Acceleration (ISA) Server 63

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Summary Firewall technology Various approaches to remote and dial-up access protection Content filtering technology Virtual private networks 65



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