Art Nouveau

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ART NOUVEAU :

ART NOUVEAU

OUTLINE:

OUTLINE Birth of Art Nouveau Introduction: Art Nouveau -Time & Place - Hallmarks of Art Nouveau Styles -Other names for Art Nouveau -Critical Nicknames Art Nouveau Architecture -Features -Pierre Francastel -Stephan Tschudi Madsen - Art Nouveau Architects and their Works Beginning of Art Deco References

BIRTH OF ART NOUVEAU:

BIRTH OF ART NOUVEAU The last third of the 19 th century saw the development of a fundamentally approach to architecture and interior design. All over Europe there was a need for liberating change of direction, a desire to break away from set formulas based on pastiche of historical styles and a search for original ideas, all of which resulted at the beginning of the 1890s in the birth of Art Nouveau.

INTRODUCTION: ART NOUVEAU:

INTRODUCTION: ART NOUVEAU Art Nouveau (French for "New Style") was popularized by the famous Maison de l'Art Nouveau (House of New Art), a Paris art gallery operated by Siegfried Bing.

INTRODUCTION: ART NOUVEAU:

INTRODUCTION: ART NOUVEAU Art Nouveau represents the beginning of modernism in design (Modern Architecture). It occurred at a time when mass-produced consumer goods began to fill the marketplace, and designers, architects, and artists began to understand that the handcrafted work of centuries past could be lost. While reclaiming this craft tradition, art nouveau designers simultaneously rejected traditional styles in favor of new, organic forms that emphasized humanity's connection to nature. 

INTRODUCTION: ART NOUVEAU:

INTRODUCTION: ART NOUVEAU TIME & PLACE Art Nouveau art and architecture flourished in major European cities between 1890 and 1914.  

INTRODUCTION: ART NOUVEAU:

INTRODUCTION: ART NOUVEAU It embraced all forms of art and design: architecture furniture glassware graphic design jewelry painting pottery metalwork textile This was a sharp contrast to the traditional separation of art into the distinct categories of fine art (painting and sculpture) and applied arts ( ceramics,furniture , and other practical objects).

INTRODUCTION: ART NOUVEAU:

INTRODUCTION: ART NOUVEAU HALLMARKS OF ART NOUVEAU STYLE flat, decorative patterns; intertwined organic forms such as stems or flowers; an emphasis on handcrafting as opposed to machine manufacturing; the use of new materials; and the rejection of earlier styles

INTRODUCTION: ART NOUVEAU:

INTRODUCTION: ART NOUVEAU Other names for Art Nouveau: As it moved through Europe, Art Nouveau went through several phases and took on a variety of names. Nieuwe Kunst In Netherland Jugendstil in Germany Arte Joven , in Spain Secession, in Austria Stile Liberty, in Italy

INTRODUCTION: ART NOUVEAU:

INTRODUCTION: ART NOUVEAU CRITICAL NICKNAMES From its earliest appearance, the Art Nouveau was also dubbed with a host of critical nicknames such as: Eel style Noodle style Mutton bone style Dandy style

ART NOUVEAU ARCHITECTURE:

ART NOUVEAU ARCHITECTURE FEATURES Art Nouveau buildings have many of these features: Asymmetrical shapes Extensive use of arches and curved forms Curved glass Curving, plant-like embellishments Mosaics Stained glass Japanese motifs

ART NOUVEAU ARCHITECTURE:

ART NOUVEAU ARCHITECTURE Pierre Francastel divides Art Nouveau into two main tendencies that could broadly termed the o rganic and the rationalist

ART NOUVEAU ARCHITECTURE:

ART NOUVEAU ARCHITECTURE Rationalist: Mackintosh school Glasglow , Scotland 1897-1909 -dependent on the straight line Organic: Gaudi house Barcelona, Spain 1903 -gives precedence to the curved line and floral shapes

ART NOUVEAU ARCHITECTURE:

ART NOUVEAU ARCHITECTURE Stephan Tschudi Madsen (Art Historian) p roposed a more subtle c lassification, but still relies on an assumed antagonism between four designs

ART NOUVEAU ARCHITECTURE:

ART NOUVEAU ARCHITECTURE In his book Sources of Art Nouveau, he describes for styles: A floral approach focuding on organic plant forms (Galle, Majorelle , Vallin ) An abstract, structural style with a strong symbolic and dynamic tendency (France & Belgium) ( Horta , Guimard , Van de Velde ) Aquarium Pavillion Henry Van de Velde’s house

ART NOUVEAU ARCHITECTURE:

ART NOUVEAU ARCHITECTURE A structured, geometric style (Austria & Germany) (Wagner, Olbrich , Hoffmann, Loos) The linear, flat approach, with a heavy symbolic element ( Glasglow group, Mackintosh) Majolikahaus in Vienna by Otto Wagner Glasgow School of Art by Charles Rennie Mackintosh

ART NOUVEAU ARCHITECTS AND THEIR WORKS:

ART NOUVEAU ARCHITECTS AND THEIR WORKS

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Victor Horta (Belgian architect and designer) (January 6, 1861 - September 8 1947)

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Hotel Tassel Brussels, Belgium Construction started 1893 Completed 1894 (1 st Art Nouveau Building in the World)

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Stairway of Tassel House, Brussels

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Hôtel van Eetvelde Brussels, Belgium Construction started 1898 Completed 1900

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Hôtel van Eetvelde office : fireplace

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Hôtel Solvay Brussels, Belgium Construction started 1898 Completed 1900

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Horta Museum formerly known as Maison & Atelier Horta Brussels, Belgium Construction started 1898 Completed 1900

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Hector Guimard (French architect) (Lyon, March 10, 1867 – New York, May 20, 1942)

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Castel Beranger Paris, France 1890 circa Building Type multi-familty housing, apartment building   Construction  System bearing masonry, brick, cast iron Climate temperate Context urban Notes Graceful asymmetrical wrought iron entry gate, precedent to work of contemporary American blacksmith Albert Paley.

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Details of Castel Beranger

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Paris Metro Entrances Paris, France 1899 to 1905 Building Type light rail rapid transit stations   Construction System iron and glass Climate temperate Context urban Notes Graceful organic forms.

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Hotel Guimard Paris, France 1912 Building Type private residence hotel  Construction System cut stone bearing masonry Climate temperate Context urban Notes Elegant facade with organic detailing.

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Louis Sullivan (American architect) (September 3, 1856 – April 14, 1924) "father of skyscrapers“ "father of modernism“ one of "the recognized trinity of American architecture"

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Wainwright Building Missouri, USA 1890 to 1891 Height: 44.81 meters / 147 feet Stories: 10

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Charles Rennie Mackintosh (British Architect, Interior Designer)

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The Light House Glasglow , Scotland Completed in 1895

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Antonio Gaudi (Architect, Barcelona) Gaudi was a Spanish (Catalan) Architect who created complex buildings in that the architecture was considered sculptural as well. His buildings are considered biomorphic , or organically-shaped. This is possibly a rejection to the coldness that a machine-produced geometric object would create

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Casa Milà Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain 1905-1907

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Casa Battlo Barcelona, Spain 1905-1907

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La Sagrada Familia (The Holy Family) Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain 1882-2026

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Parque   Güell Barcelona, Spain 1900 to 1914 Parque Güell , or Guell Park is surrounded by an undulating mosaic wall.

BEGINNING OF ART DECO:

BEGINNING OF ART DECO When Art Nouveau fell out of fashion in the 1920s and 1930s , it was replaced by the clean, simple geometries of Art Deco . The extravagant curves of Art Nouveau were seen as old-fashioned and viewed with contempt.

BEGINNING OF ART DECO:

BEGINNING OF ART DECO Many Art Nouveau products were put away, spurned, or destroyed . Rooms once decorated in what had been the height of fashion were redecorated to conform to the latest taste.

BEGINNING OF ART DECO:

BEGINNING OF ART DECO It was not until nearly half a century later, in 1952 , the first comprehensive exhibition devoted to Art Nouveau was organized in Zurich, Switzerland . Present day interest in Art Nouveau, and in particular its widespread appreciation within the last thirty years, has once again firmly established it as an important art movement .

REFERENCES:

REFERENCES http://www.docstoc.com/docs/79051493/Art-Nouveau-%28PowerPoint%29 http://www.greatbuildings.com/architects/Hector_Guimard.html http://architecture.about.com/od/artnouveau/g/artnouveau.htm http://www.mr-oscar-wilde.de/lifetime/art_nouveau.htm#Sullivan http://architecture.about.com/od/greatbuildings/ig/Antoni-Gaud-/Guell-Park.htm KEIICHI TAHARA Art Nouveau Architecture Philippine Thiebaut Bruno Girveau ©2000 Thames and Hudson Ltd, London ALASTAIR DUNCAN Art Nouveau (170 illustrations, 32 in colour ) ©1994 Thames and Hudson Ltd, London Art Nouveau (Spirit of the Belle Epoque ) by Susan A. Sternau © 1996 Todri Production Limited The Sources of Modern Architecture and Design by Nikolaus Pevsner ©1968 Thames and Hudson Ltd , London

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