SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE ISAAC newton

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ASTI

Non Conventional Sources : 

Non Conventional Sources Solar Energy Storages BY P.ISAAC NEWTON B.TECH, IV ECE E-MAIL:pittaisaacnewton@gmail.com Cell No: 9177183074, 9441241285 AURORA SCIENTIFIC TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE

AGENDA: : 

AGENDA: Difference between conventional and non-conventional energy How much solar energy received by earth ? What are Solar technologies? Technical definition of Solar Energy? How Solar energy is needed by green plants? Thermal energy storage Different types of solar energy storages ->thermal energy storage-latent-sensible heat.. Water storage.. pebble heat storage ->electrical storage-capacitor-inductor-battery storage ->chemical storage-chemical-thermo chemical storage ->mechanical energy storage-pumping hydro electric- compressed air-fly wheel ->electro magnetic energy storage-

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Conventional Sources (Renewable) These are the commonly and widely used sources eg. Hydroelectricity, Thermal Power (from coal, mineral oil, natural gas) Non Conventional Sources (NonRenewable) These are the new sources of energy, which are still not in common use. Their contribution to the national power is nominal. Eg. Solar, Tidal, Wind, Bio gas, Geo thermal.

What is Solar Energy? : 

What is Solar Energy? Originates with the thermonuclear fusion reactions occurring in the sun. Represents the entire electromagnetic radiation (visible light, infrared, ultraviolet, x-rays, and radio waves).

How much solar energy? : 

How much solar energy? The surface receives about 47% of the total solar energy that reaches the Earth. Only this amount is usable.

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Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute sunlight Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels, solar thermal collectors, with electrical or mechanical equipment, to convert sunlight into useful outputs. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air.

Solar Energy: : 

Solar Energy: The energy transmitted from the Sun. The upper atmosphere of Earth receives about 1.5 × 1021 watt-hours (thermal) of solar radiation annually. This vast amount of energy is more than 23,000 times that used by the human population of this planet, but it is only about one two-billionth of the Sun's massive outpouring—about 3.9 × 102MW

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SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE Electro-magnetic Energy Storage Thermal Energy Storage Electrical Storage Chemical storage Chemical Thermo- Chemical Mechanical Energy Storage Capacitor Storage Inductor Storage Battery Storage Sensible heat Latent heat Pumped hydro- electric storage Compressed air Flywheel Water Storage Pebble bed Storage

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Solar energy is needed by green plants for the process of photosynthesis, which is the ultimate source of all food. The energy in fossil fuels (e.g., coal and oil) and other organic fuels (e.g., wood) is derived from solar energy. Difficulties with these fuels have led to the invention of devices that directly convert solar energy into usable forms of energy, such as electricity. Solar batteries, which operate on the principle that light falling on photosensitive substances causes a flow of electricity, play an important part in space satellites Thermoelectric generators convert the heat generated by solar energy directly into electricity (thermoelectricity).

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Several projects have produced electricity on a large scale by using the solar energy available in desert areas. In another, oil flows through pipes that can trap the heat from sunlight falling on them. The heat from the oil is then converted into electricity (power, electric). Heat from the sun is used in air-drying a variety of materials and in producing salt by the evaporation of seawater. Solar heating systems can supply heat and hot water for domestic use; heat collected in special plates on the roof of a house is stored in rocks or water held in a large container. Solar stoves, which focus the sun's heat directly, are employed in regions where there is much perennial sunlight.

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THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

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Radiation from the Sun that can produce heat, generate electricity, or cause chemical reactions. Solar collectors collect solar radiation and transfer it as heat to a carrier fluid. It can then be used for heating. Solar cells convert solar radiation directly into electricity by means of the photovoltaic effect. solar cell arrays and the inherent inefficiency in converting light to electricity.

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There are two types of solar panels available for at home use: the photovoltaic solar panel and the solar thermal collector. The purpose of a photovoltaic solar panel is to convert sun rays into a compressed form of electricity that could be used for house hold energy. The panel is made from photovoltaic cells, also known as solar cells.  They form a photovoltaic array or solar panel.  These cells form the perfect for capturing the sun’s energy and converting it into electricity.  The word photovoltaic basically means “light energy.”  The process converts photons into electrons and captures these electrons in a battery.

There are four primary ways to store solar thermal energy: : 

There are four primary ways to store solar thermal energy: (1) sensible-heat-storage systems, which store thermal energy in materials with good heat-retention qualities; (2) latent-heat-storage systems, which store solar thermal energy in the latent heat of fusion or vaporization of certain materials undergoing a change of phase; (3) chemical energy storage, which uses reversible reactions (for example, the dissociation-association reaction of sulfuric acid and water); and (4) electrical or mechanical storage, particularly through the use of storage batteries (electrical) or compressed air (mechanical)Energy storage.

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LATENT HEAT:

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Latent heat is the energy absorbed or released when a substance changes its physical state.  Latent heat is absorbed upon evaporation, and released upon condensation to liquid (as in clouds). Latent heat is also absorbed when water melts, and released when it freezes.

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Sensible heat storage :

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Sensible heat storage with air as the energy transport mechanism, rock, gravel, or crushed stone in a bin has the advantage of providing a large, cheap heat transfer surface. 1.Rock is more easily contained than water. 2.Rock acts as its own heat exchanger 3.It can be used for thermal storage at high temperatures, much higher than 100*c 4.the heat transfer coefficients between the air and solid is high. 5.The cost of storage material is low. 6.The conductivity of the bed is low when air flow is not present. Pebble bed exchanger have good heat transfer characteristics between air and the solids of the bed. This type of storage system has been used in the solar houses or with hot air collector system.

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ELECTRICAL STORAGE

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B — Co-Generator UnitProvides heat (and electricity) when passive solar heat or photovoltaic (PV) generated electricity is insufficient. L — BatteriesSufficient electrical energy storage for 4 days without sunshine. K — Solar Photovoltaic PanelsProvides approx. 80% of electrical requirements.

CHEMICAL ENERGY STORAGE: : 

CHEMICAL ENERGY STORAGE:

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Certain organ metallic molecules undergo a reaction upon exposure to light that is reversible with either a catalyst or heat. In some cases a considerable amount of energy can be stored, as was shown for example in the work of Vollhardt in 1996 for fulvalenes. In the Ru case shown in this figure, the Ru-Ru bond and the C-C bond are broken upon light exposure, and the molecule effectively “flips”. This stored chemical energy is highly stable, with a large back-reaction barrier, and can then be released in a very straightforward manner. To understand how and why this reaction takes place, and also how the efficiency of the reaction in order to increase its ability to store energy. A number of other such molecules that fall into the same class of sunlight-to-chemical energy storage. We’re also exploring pathways for utilizing such molecules on large scales, which involve appropriate matrix materials (which in turn impact its chemical properties).

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PUMPED HYDRO-ELECTRIC STORAGE:

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To pump water from one reservoir to another reservoir at a higher level. During periods of peak electrical demand, water from the higher reservoir is released through turbines to the lower reservoir and electricity is produced. These systems use more electricity to pump than they can produce. Typical power rating on these systems is between 100 – 2000 MW with a typical energy rating between 4 – 10 hours. EXPLANATION:

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compressed air energy storage:

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In compressed air energy storage, is used to pump air (1) to a high pressure (2) into a sealed underground cavern. (3) as the air in the cavern is slowly heated and released; the resulting power produced by the generator (4) may be used at peak hours.Typical power rating on these systems is between 100 – 300 MW with a typical energy rating between 6 – 20 hours EXPLANATION:

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flywheel:

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A flywheel is an electromechanical device that couples a motor generator with a rotating mass to store energy for short durations 2. flywheels constructed from carbon fiber materials and magnetic bearings can spin in vacuum at speeds up to 40,000 to 60,000 RPM. EXPLANATION:

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ELECTRO-MAGNETIC ENERGY STORAGE: Electromagnetic energy storage is also called as super conducting energy storage It is defined as: It is possible to store electric energy as a magnetic energy, even when the electric current is flowing into the coil of the superconductive cable, since the electric current generates continuously a uniform magnetic energy without attenuating

CONCLUSION: : 

CONCLUSION: Solar energy is a clean, pollution free and renewable source of energy. To make sure we have plenty of energy in the future, it's up to all of us to use energy wisely. We must all conserve energy and use it efficiently. It's also up to those who will create the new energy technologies of the future. All energy sources have an impact on the environment. Concerns about the greenhouse effect and global warming, air pollution, and energy security have led to increasing interest and more development in renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, wave power and hydrogen. But we'll need to continue to use fossil fuels and nuclear energy until new, cleaner technologies can replace them. One of you who is reading this might be another The future is ours, but we need energy to get there.

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Imagination is more important than knowledge, for knowledge is limited, whereas imagination embraces the entire world - stimulating progress, giving birth to evolution. - Albert Einstein Quotes: THANK YOU

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