Category: Education

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Leadership skills, Theories, and Practices


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LEADERSHIP The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. Not all leaders are managers nor all managers are leaders. A good leader displays the ability, creativity, and confidence. He gets co-operation, willingness and builds employee morale and motivation. Ordinary people who do extra-ordinary things.

Employee Asset : 

Employee Asset People can be the biggest asset of a company or it can be the biggest liability. Customer is the king – customer satisfaction is the priority. Employees first, followed by customers and then the share holders Majority of the companies in India measure this asset on the profitability of the company

A Good Leader : 

A Good Leader Has foresight Has influence Has representative role playing. Communicates properly. Commands trust and confidence. Commands attention and respect. Helps to achieve task objectives. Has concern for needs of his group. Sensitive to the task, people and environment. Builds team and become model. Ability and skill to manage the team. Ability to take decisions.

Theories of Leadership : 

Theories of Leadership “Great man” theories – inherent – great leaders are born, not made. Trait Theories – inherent qualities- traits Contingency Theories – environmental, style, qualities of followers, and situation. Situational Theories – best course of action for situation. Behavioural Theories – great leaders are made, not born. Theory focuses on actions.

Theories of Leadership : 

Theories of Leadership Participative Theories – participation and contributions from group members. Management Theories - Transactional Theories – supervision, organization and group performance. Reward and Punishment. Relationship Theories – Transformational Theories – connections formed between leaders and followers.

Classification of Leadership : 

Classification of Leadership The Bureaucrat – sticks to routine, pleases superiors, avoid subordinates. The Autocrat – directive and expects obedience. (do as I say – Not, as I do) The Diplomat – opportunist and exploits the subordinates. The Expert – over specialized, self-centered, no personal relationship with subordinates. The Quarter Back – one among the subordinates, no control over subordinates.

Classification by Chris Argyris : 

Classification by Chris Argyris The directive type The permissive type The participative type

Functions of a Leader : 

Functions of a Leader Maintenance of membership Objective attainment Group interaction


PETER DRUCKER “An effective leader is one who can make ordinary people do extraordinary things, make common people do uncommon things. Leadership is a lifting of a man’s sights to a higher vision, the raising of man’s standard to a higher performance, the building of a man’s performance beyond its normal limitations.”

Qualities of a LeaderVISCOUNT SLIM : 

Qualities of a LeaderVISCOUNT SLIM Courage Will-power Judgment Flexibility Knowledge Integrity

Ten Commandments of Leadership : 

Ten Commandments of Leadership Physical and mental energy Enthusiasm Sense of purpose/direction Technical mastery Friendliness and affection 6. Decision making 7. Integrity 8. Intelligence Faith Effective communication.

Theory X : 

Theory X The average human being has an inherent dislike for work, and will avoid if he can. They must be coerced, controlled, directed or threatened with punishment to achieve. Wishes to avoid responsibility, little ambition, wants security.

Theory Y : 

Theory Y The physical and mental effort in work is as play or rest. Man will exercise self control in the service of objective to which he is committed. Commitment to objectives depend on the rewards associated with the achievement. Average human being learns under proper conditions, not only to accept, but to shed responsibility.

Theory Y : 

Theory Y The creativity and imagination is less found in the majority of the employees. Modern industrial life, the intellectual potentialities of the average human being are partially utilized. The focus of a Y manager is on man as a growing, developing learning being.

Leadership styles - Parameters : 

Leadership styles - Parameters Philosophy Planning and goal setting Implementation Evaluation Autocratic Manager Democratic Manager

Leadership Continuum – Tannebaum, schmidt : 

Leadership Continuum – Tannebaum, schmidt

Autocratic Manager Democratic Manager : 

Autocratic Manager Democratic Manager To choose most appropriate style leader must consider: Forces in the manager – belief in member participation and capabilities of members. Forces in the subordinate – independent, tolerant, competent, identify with orgnl goals. Forces in the situation – team’s knowledge, organl values, traditions, team work. Time pressure – immediate decision under pressure.

Managerial Grid : 

Managerial Grid Robert Blake – Behavioural Scientist. Study on 5000 managers in 1964 with Jane Mouton – Managerial Grid Model. Five Different types of Leadership – concern for people and concern for production. Optimal leadership style based on Theory Y. X – axis – concern for production Y – axis – concern for people

Managerial Grid : 

Managerial Grid Con C E R n for peop L e Concern for results

1. The impoverished style (1,1). : 

1. The impoverished style (1,1). The indifferent Leader (Evade and Elude) Delegate and disappear Does only to preserve job and seniority Gives little and enjoys little Protects himself by not being noticed by others. Tries to stay in the same post for long time.

2. The Country Club Style (1,9) : 

2. The Country Club Style (1,9) The accommodating Leader (Yield & Comply) High concern for people, law concern for production. “I support results that and reinforce harmony.” “I generate enthusiasm by focusing on positive and pleasing aspects of work.”

3. The Produce or Perish Style (9,1) : 

3. The Produce or Perish Style (9,1) The controlling leader (Direct & Dominate) Pressure employees through rules and punishments to achieve the company goals. Based on theory X – Hire and Fire. Hard on workers (Autocratic) Task oriented, strong on schedule, no arguments, and difficult to develop. “I expect results and take control by clearly stating a course of action.”

4. The middle-of-the-road style (5,5). : 

4. The middle-of-the-road style (5,5). The status – quo Leader. (Balance & Compromise) Balance between company goals and worker's needs. Concern to both people and production. “I endorse results that are popular but caution against taking unnecessary risk.” “I test my opinions with others involved to assure ongoing acceptability.”

5. The Team Style (9,9) : 

5. The Team Style (9,9) The sound Team Leader (contribute and Commit) High concern for people and production. Encourage team work and commitment among employees. Employees feel as a constructive part of the company. “I initiate team action in a way that invites involvement and commitment.”

Grid Relationship Skills : 

Grid Relationship Skills Critique – Learning from experience by anticipating and examining how behaviour and actions affect results. Initiative – taking action to exercise shared effort, drive, and support for specific activities. Inquiry – questioning, seeking information, and testing for understanding. Advocacy – expressing attitudes, opinions, ideas and convictions.

Grid Relationship Skills : 

Grid Relationship Skills Decision making – evaluating resources, criteria and consequences to reach a decision. Conflict Resolution – confronting and working through disagreements with others toward resolution. Resilience – reacting to problems, setbacks, and failure and understanding how these factors influence the ability to move forward.

Presented by : 

Presented by Dr. Pious Thomas Kristu Jayanti College, Bangalore

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