RESEARCH METHODOLOGY : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY K. SYED ABUDAHEER, M.P.T., M.I.A.P., K. SYED, MPT (ortho) PLAN : PLAN Introduction of Research
Objectives of Research
Motivation of Research
Types of Research
Unscientific methods of Problem solving
Scientific methods of Problem solving / Research process
Criteria for good Research
Problems encountered by Researchers in India
The Physical therapist – As Contributor to Research
Survival and Growth through Research
The role of Research in Physical therapy K. SYED, MPT (ortho) INTRODUCTION : INTRODUCTION “Search of knowledge”
“It is a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on specific topic”
According to Oxford Dictionary (1952, p1069), “A careful inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge”
According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solution; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusion; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. K. SYED, MPT (ortho) OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH : OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH To gain familiarity with a phenomenon
To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group
To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else
To identify the casual relationship between variables K. SYED, MPT (ortho) MOTIVATION IN RESEARCH : MOTIVATION IN RESEARCH Desire to get a research degree along with its consequential benefits
Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems
Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work
Desire to be of service to society
Desire to get respectability K. SYED, MPT (ortho) SOME TERMINOLOGIES : SOME TERMINOLOGIES Data: Measurement of records of facts made under specific conditions
Hypothesis: tentative assumption of the study or expected results of the study
Independent variable: The part of the experiment that the researcher is manipulating; also called experimental or treatment variable. K. SYED, MPT (ortho) SOME TERMINOLOGIES : SOME TERMINOLOGIES Dependent variable: The effect of the Independent variable
Population: A total number of subjects which they abide the inclusion and exclusion criteria.
Paradigm crisis phenomenon: development of discrepancies leading to proposals of new paradigm that better explain the data. K. SYED, MPT (ortho) SOME TERMINOLOGIES : SOME TERMINOLOGIES Review: A research paper that is a critical evaluation of research on a particular topic.
Research proposal / Synopsis: A formal preparation that includes introduction, review of literature and proposed method of conducting study. K. SYED, MPT (ortho) TYPES OF RESEARCH : TYPES OF RESEARCH Descriptive research
Conceptual research K. SYED, MPT (ortho) DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH : DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH Surveys & fact finding enquiries of different kinds
Purpose is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present.
Researcher has no control over the variables; he can only report what has happened or what is happening. K. SYED, MPT (ortho) SUBIVISIONS OF DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH : SUBIVISIONS OF DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH Survey research
The case study
Epidemiological research K. SYED, MPT (ortho) ANALYTICAL RESEARCH : ANALYTICAL RESEARCH Involves in-debth study and evaluation of available information in an attempt to explain complex phenomenon.
The researcher has to use facts or information already available and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material. K. SYED, MPT (ortho) SUBDIVISIONS OF ANALYTICAL RESEARCH : SUBDIVISIONS OF ANALYTICAL RESEARCH Historical research
Research synthesis ( meta analysis i.e. analysis the review that already published) K. SYED, MPT (ortho) APPLIED / ACTION RESEARCH : APPLIED / ACTION RESEARCH Finding a solution an immediate problem
Say a solution
Evaluation research K. SYED, MPT (ortho) BASIC /PURE/ FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH : BASIC /PURE/ FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH generalization and with the formulation of theory
Natural phenomenon and mathematics are the examples of basic research
Finding information in broad base. K. SYED, MPT (ortho) QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH : QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH Based on measurement of quantity or amount
Weighing, measuring are the examples of quantitative research K. SYED, MPT (ortho) QUALITATIVE RESEARCH : QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Phenomena relating quality or kind
Character, personality and man kind are the examples of variable used to measure the qualitative research
Word association test, Sentence completion test are the examples of qualitative research K. SYED, MPT (ortho) CONCEPTUAL / EXERIMENTAL RESEARCH : CONCEPTUAL / EXERIMENTAL RESEARCH Related to some abstract ideas / theory experiment
Attempt to establish cause and effect relationship K. SYED, MPT (ortho) UNSCIENTIFIC METHODS OF PROBLEM SOLVING : UNSCIENTIFIC METHODS OF PROBLEM SOLVING Tenacity
The Rationalistic method
The Empirical method K. SYED, MPT (ortho) TENACITY : TENACITY Sometime cling to certain beliefs despite lack of supporting evidence
Superstitions are good examples of this method called tenacity.
Coaches and athletes wearing same dress
Black cat brought bad luck K. SYED, MPT (ortho) INTUITION : INTUITION Intuitive knowledge is sometimes considered to be common sense or self evident
Self evident truth sometime may found to be false K. SYED, MPT (ortho) AUTHORITY : AUTHORITY Reference to some authority has long been used as a source of knowledge.
Ptolemy’s explanation about world and heaven K. SYED, MPT (ortho) THE RATIONALISTIC METHOD : THE RATIONALISTIC METHOD Derive knowledge through reasoning
Basket ball players are tall.
Tony is a basket ball player
Therefore, tony is tall K. SYED, MPT (ortho) THE EMPIRICAL METHOD : THE EMPIRICAL METHOD Describes data or a study that is based on objective observation
Gathering data is scientific method but here experience plays major role. K. SYED, MPT (ortho) SCIENTIFIC METHOD OF PROBLEM SOLVING / RESEARCH PROCESS : SCIENTIFIC METHOD OF PROBLEM SOLVING / RESEARCH PROCESS Formulating research problem
Review of literature
Preparing research and sample design
Execution of project
Analysis of data
Preparation of report or thesis K. SYED, MPT (ortho) FORMULATING RESEARCH PROBLEM : FORMULATING RESEARCH PROBLEM Problems are divided two types
Problems which relate to state of nature
Those which relate correlation between variables
Subject of interest to be selected as a problem
Always select unsolved problem
Initially, may propose in Broadway and ambiguities may resolved
Feasibility K. SYED, MPT (ortho) FORMULATING RESEARCH PROBLEM : FORMULATING RESEARCH PROBLEM Understanding the problem thoroughly
Rephrasing the same into meaningful term
Discuss the problems with colleagues
Staff members and guide
Take a view of old reviews
The final question should be precise and grammatically correct and should state exactly what you expect to learn as a result of a study. K. SYED, MPT (ortho) REVIEW OF LITERATURE : REVIEW OF LITERATURE Journals
Library is good friend
Internet and websites K. SYED, MPT (ortho) DEVELOPING HYPOTHESIS : DEVELOPING HYPOTHESIS It should be very specific and limited to the piece of research in hand because it has to be tested.
The role of hypothesis is to guide the researcher by delimiting the area of research and to keep him on the right track. K. SYED, MPT (ortho) DEVELOPING HYPOTHESIS : DEVELOPING HYPOTHESIS Discussion with colleagues and experts about the problem, its origin and the objectives in seeking solution
Examinations of data and records
Review of similar studies in the area or of the studies on similar problems
Personal investigation which involves original field interviews. K. SYED, MPT (ortho) PREPARING RESEARCH AND SAMPLE DESIGN : PREPARING RESEARCH AND SAMPLE DESIGN State the conceptual structure within which research would be conducted
Type of research design
Experimental , quasi experimental and non experimental
Setting of the study
Criteria for selection
Sample selection K. SYED, MPT (ortho) COLLECTING DATA : COLLECTING DATA Several ways are there to collect the appropriate data
Primary data and secondary data
Survey K. SYED, MPT (ortho) EXECUTION OF PROJECT : EXECUTION OF PROJECT It is a very important step in research process
If it is proceeds on correct lines, the data to be collected would be adequate and dependable.
The step should be taken that the data should be in the control of statistics so that the collected information is in accordance with the pre defined designed to tackle this problem K. SYED, MPT (ortho) ANALYSIS OF DATA : ANALYSIS OF DATA The analysis of data requires a number of closely related operations such as establishment of categories, the application of theses categories to raw data through tabulation, coding and editing like statistical interference. K. SYED, MPT (ortho) ANALYSIS OF DATA : ANALYSIS OF DATA Coding: this operation is usually done at this stage through which the categories of data are transformed into symbols that may be tabulated and counted.
Editing: it is the procedure that improves the quality of the data for coding
Tabulation: It is a part of the technical procedure wherein the classified data are put in the form of tables. K. SYED, MPT (ortho) HYPOTHESIS TESTING : HYPOTHESIS TESTING After analyzing the data, the researcher is in position to test the hypothesis.
Student ‘t’ test, Chi-square, F- test are the examples of statistical techniques
At end, researcher have reject or not reject the null hypothesis. K. SYED, MPT (ortho) DISCUSSION : DISCUSSION Chapter or section of a research report that explains what the results mean.
Its very important section to add the appropriate supportive literatures. K. SYED, MPT (ortho) PREPARATION OF REPORT OR THESIS : PREPARATION OF REPORT OR THESIS The layout of the report should be as follows.
The main text
The end matter K. SYED, MPT (ortho) CRITERIA FOR GOOD RESEARCH : CRITERIA FOR GOOD RESEARCH The purpose of the research should be clearly defined and common concepts be used
The research procedure used should be described in sufficient detail to permit another researcher to repeat the research for further advancement, keeping the continuity of what has already been attained.
The procedure design of the research should be carefully planned to yield results that tare as objectives as possible K. SYED, MPT (ortho) CRITERIA FOR GOOD RESEARCH : CRITERIA FOR GOOD RESEARCH The researcher should report with complete frankness, flaws in procedural design and estimate their effects upon the findings.
The analysis of data should be sufficiently adequate to reveal its significance and the method of analysis used should be appropriate. The validity and reliability of the data should be checked carefully. K. SYED, MPT (ortho) CRITERIA FOR GOOD RESEARCH : CRITERIA FOR GOOD RESEARCH Conclusions should be confined to those justified by the data of the research and limited to those for which the data provide an adequate basis.
Greater confidence in research is warranted if the researcher is experienced, has a good reputation in research and is a person of integrity. K. SYED, MPT (ortho) PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY RESEARCHERS IN INDIA : PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY RESEARCHERS IN INDIA The lack of a scientific training in the methodology of research
There is insufficient interaction between university and the companies
Research studies overlapping one another are undertaken quire often for want of adequate information K. SYED, MPT (ortho) PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY RESEARCHERS IN INDIA : PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY RESEARCHERS IN INDIA Does not exist a code of conduct
Improper library management and functioning
Improper delivery of government orders, reports and etc.,
Time availability improper
Funding source K. SYED, MPT (ortho) THE PHYSICAL THERAPIST – AS CONTRIBUTOR TO RESEARCH : THE PHYSICAL THERAPIST – AS CONTRIBUTOR TO RESEARCH Worthingam (1959) stated that “to be professional, members of a group must posses a body of knowledge that is both identifiable and different from that of other professions. They must also assume responsibility for adding to that body of knowledge K. SYED, MPT (ortho) THE PHYSICAL THERAPIST – AS CONTRIBUTOR TO RESEARCH : THE PHYSICAL THERAPIST – AS CONTRIBUTOR TO RESEARCH Each physical therapy clinician should be conversant enough with research methods to know from whom to seek help when initiating a research project. Though participation in such clinical research the physical therapist can improve patient care.
A clinician who has studied research methods knows rigorous investigation is required before any conclusions about the effect of a treatment can be drawn. K. SYED, MPT (ortho) SURVIVAL & GROWTH THROUGH RESEARCH : SURVIVAL & GROWTH THROUGH RESEARCH Health care professionals unable to prove that they prevent disease, improve health or restore function will not be reimbursed for their service
Physical therapy cannot justify its existence on the basis of what it does for patients, it will cease to be a profession in all too short time. K. SYED, MPT (ortho) SURVIVAL & GROWTH THROUGH RESEARCH : SURVIVAL & GROWTH THROUGH RESEARCH Instead of viewing increased accountability as a problem or threat, we must view it as an opportunity to document the positive contributions physical therapy makes to the public it serves.
The bridge between what physical therapists believe they contribute to improving patient function and the documentation of those improvements is clinical research. K. SYED, MPT (ortho) Role of research in PT : Role of research in PT Clinical service
Research oriented. K. SYED, MPT (ortho)