The Byzantine, Russian Mongol Empires test review

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TEST REVIEW: Gitlin The Byzantine, Russian and Mongol Empires:

TEST REVIEW: Gitlin The Byzantine, Russian and Mongol Empires

The Byzantine Empire:

The Byzantine Empire AKA: The Eastern Roman Empire AKA: The “New Rome”

Geography: Constantinople :

Geography: Constantinople Called the Golden Horn Greek seaport and natural harbor Byzantines controlled Black Sea and the Sea of Marmora because it was on the Bosporus Strait. At the crossroads of trade for Europe, Asia, and Africa

Notable Rulers: Justinian and Theodora:

Notable Rulers: Justinian and Theodora Justinian Theodora

Who was Justinian?:

Who was Justinian? High-ranking Byzantine nobleman who succeeded his uncle to the throne in 527 Accomplishments: gained control of almost all the territory that Rome had ever ruled Creation of the Justinian Code (more on this in a minute) Rebuilt Constantinople Built Hagia Sophia (more on this later) Justinian, and all other Byzantine emperors, was head of both church & state

Who was Theodora? :

Who was Theodora? Former actress who became Justinian’s wife Accomplishments Met with foreign diplomats , wrote to foreign leaders Passed laws built churches Theodora convinced him to put down the Nika Rebellion Champion of women’s rights

Laws: Justinian’s Code:

Laws: Justinian’s Code Uniform law code It consisted of four books 1. The Code Nearly 5,000 Roman laws still considered useful 2. The Digest Quoted & summarized the opinions of Rome’s greatest legal thinkers about the laws – 50 volumes 3. The Institutes Textbook that told law students how to use the laws 4. The Novellae New Laws – legislation passed after 534 ****Justinian’s Code served the empire for 900 years*****

Byzantine Art:

Byzantine Art Marked by frescoes & mosaics

Architecture: Hagia Sophia:

Architecture: Hagia Sophia Justinian’s passion= church building churches show the connection between the church and the state. The Hagia Sophia = “Holy Wisdom” Justinian also built baths , aqueducts , law courts , schools , hospitals , and expanded his palace into a vast complex

Religion: Eastern Orthodox and the Schism:

Religion: Eastern Orthodox and the Schism Christianity had begun to develop differently in the Western & Eastern Empires This was mainly due to the distance and lack of contact between the two regions Leader: Patriarch His authority is subject to the emperor

Religion: Eastern Orthodox and The Schism:

Religion: Eastern Orthodox and The Schism Cause: argument over the use of icons 730 : Emperor Leo III banned the use of icons (religious images used by Eastern Christians to aid their devotions) Viewed the use of icons as idol worship People rioted, clergy rebelled Western pope supported the use of icons 1054: Controversy continued The pope and the patriarch excommunicated (being thrown out of the church) each other in a dispute over religious doctrine Shortly afterward, Christianity officially split: Roman Catholic Church in the West Eastern Orthodox Church in the East

Religion: Eastern Orthodox Missionaries:

Religion: Eastern Orthodox Missionaries As two sides grew apart, each competed for converts Orthodox missionaries took their form of Christianity to the Slavs – a group that lived in the forests north of the Black Sea Saint Methodius & Saint Cyril Missionaries who invented an alphabet for the Slavic languages so they could read the Bible in their native tongue It became knows as the Cyrillic alphabet An 11th-century silver chalice displays the Cyrillic alphabet. 

Fall of the Byzantine Empire:

Fall of the Byzantine Empire 1204: Crusading knights from Europe pillage Constantinople 1453: Constantinople falls to Ottoman Turks – renamed Istanbul



Russia: Viking Influence:

Russia: Viking Influence 800s Small bands of adventurers from the north, called Rus (Vikings) , mixed with the Slavic peoples living in modern-day Russia 862 Legend says Slavs invited Viking chief Rurik to be their king – he settled in Novgorod , Russia’s first important city

Russia: Viking Influence:

Russia: Viking Influence 880 Oleg, a nobleman from Novgorod, moved south to Kiev , a city on the Dnieper From Kiev, the Vikings could sail by river and sea to Constantinople and trade for products Viking nobles intermarried with their Slavic subjects Later the blending of Slavic and Byzantine culture will form Russian Culture

Russia: Religion The link between Russia and Constantinople:

Russia: Religion The link between Russia and Constantinople 957 Princess Olga, a member of the Kievan nobility, visited Constantinople She publicly converted to Christianity 980 Vladimir, Princess Olga’s grandson, came to the throne and makes Christianity the official religion of Russia after reports from Constantinople Now Kiev, already linked to Constantinople by trade, now looked to it for religious guidance as well

Russia: Kiev:

Russia: Kiev Kiev becomes a prosperous city because of its strategic location along the Dnieper River that linked trade routes between Scandinavia and the Byzantine Empire Yarslov the Wise, Vladimir’s son, helped Kiev to rise to its Golden Age. Created a law code

Kiev’s Decline:

Kiev’s Decline Yaroslav divided his realm among his sons Result: Sons tore the state of Kiev apart fighting amongst each other for territory The Crusades disrupted trade Mongols attacked and demolished Kiev in 1240 – took over The capital is now moved from Kiev to MOSCOW Tolerated all religions and allowed Russians to follow their usual customs, but demanded obedience & a large amount of tribute from the principalities

Russia: Mongol Influence :

Russia: Mongol Influence Isolated Russia more from Western Europe Caused Russia to develop differently from the rest of Europe because they were cut off from their ideas and inventions Encouraged the rise of Moscow as a center of power Encouraged the guidance and control of the Byzantine Church

Russia: The Russian Empire:

Russia: The Russian Empire After the Mongols occupied Russia for about 200 years, the Russians finally broke free Ivan III Openly challenged Mongol rule- refused to pay tribute Took the title of “czar” – Russian version of Caesar – and claimed his intent to make Russia the “ Third Rome ” Ivan refused to pay tribute to the Mongols This bloodless standoff traditionally marks the Russian’s liberation from Mongol rule

The Mongols:

The Mongols

The Rise of the Mongols:

The Rise of the Mongols Problems Between Steppe Nomads & Settled Communities Because of scarcities and hardships of their lifestyle, steppe nomads raided towns and villages to acquire pasture land for their herds and resources for survival

The Rise of the Mongols:

The Rise of the Mongols Genghis Khan – aka Temujin 1200 – sought to unify Mongols under his leadership He defeated his rivals one by one 1206 – accepted title Genghis Khan, or “ universal ruler ” Immediately following the death of Genghis Khan, the Mongol Empire was expanded into other areas of Asia by his successors.

The Rise of the Mongols:

The Rise of the Mongols Characteristics of Genghis Khan’s Success: Brilliant organizer Gifted Strategist Used cruelty as a weapon

The Khanates:

The Khanates

The Khanates:

The Khanates Mongols ruled ruthlessly at first, destroying the land and irrigation systems and wiping out populations Later they adopted aspects of the cultures they ruled and imposed stability, law, and order across much of Eurasia Cultural differences between the khanates eventually led to it splitting up

The Pax Mongolica – Mongol Peace:

The Pax Mongolica – Mongol Peace A period of peace from the mid-1200s to the mid-1300s , whereby the Mongols established stability and law throughout much of Eurasia This peace made travel and trade safer and promoted the exchange of goods and ideas across Asia and Europe Some historians speculate that the epidemic known as the Bubonic Plague that devastated Europe in the 1300s was first spread along these trade routes. More to come on this later End of Pax Mongolica led to disorder

The Mongol Empire:

The Mongol Empire Kublai Khan Grandson of Genghis Khan Known as The Great Khan Gained control of China in 1279 and united them for the first time in 300 years Called his dynasty the Yuan Dynasty

The Mongol Empire:

The Mongol Empire Kublai Khan’s Rule Built palaces in Shangdu & modern-day Beijing Moved his capital from Mongolia to China Kept Mongol identity, but tolerated Chinese culture and kept Chinese officials in local gov’t Gave most high gov’t positions to foreigners because the Mongols believed that foreigners were more trustworthy since they did not have local loyalties Example: Marco Polo

The Mongol Empire:

The Mongol Empire Marco Polo Venetian trader Traveled to China & visited Kublai Khan’s court Served Kublai Khan for 17 years Much of what is known about the Yuan Dynasty is based upon his travel narratives .

The Mongol Empire:

The Mongol Empire Expanded Trade Made caravan routes across Asia safe Established mail routes to link China with India and Persia Greatly improved trade Eventually the compass, paper money, playing cards, gunpowder, and printing will travel the secured Silk Road. Invited foreign merchants to visit China Failure to conquer Japan : Kublai Khan launched the largest seaborne invasion in history up until WWII against Japan was never able to capture Japan lost many Mongol soldiers and ships in the Sea of Japan. His seaborne invasion of 150,000 soldiers was swept away by a “divine wind” or kamikaze (typhoon )

The Mongol Empire:

The Mongol Empire Legacy of Yuan Dynasty for China: It united China Expanded foreign contacts Made few changes to Chinese culture and system of government

The Mongol Empire:

The Mongol Empire Reason for the Fall of Yuan Dynasty: Civil discontent because of famine, floods, and disease Economic problems and official corruption Power struggles among Yuan family members Rebellions of Chinese Overexpansion and heavy taxation Military defeats Ineffective rulers

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