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ROMAN ART - STATUES During the third and second centuries B.C., the Romans adopted many features of the Greek style of art. They developed a taste for Greek statues, which they placed not only in public buildings but also in their private houses. Reproductions of Greek statues became popular once the supply of original works ran low. While Greek sculptors aimed for an ideal appearance in their figures , Roman sculptors produced realistic statues that included even unpleasant physical details. The Discus Thrower, Athens, Greece 450 B.C.E.. Height: 61 inches 2

Roman Fine Arts Sculpture :

Roman Fine Arts Sculpture Romans learned the art of sculpture from the Greeks. However, while the Greeks were known for the beauty and idealization of their sculpture, Roman sculptors created realistic portraits in stone. Much Roman art was practical in purpose, intended for public education. 1st century Roman statues of Gratidia and Gratidius Libanus 3

Mosaics :

Mosaics Roman artists also were particularly skilled in creating mosaics. Mosaics were pictures or designs made by setting small pieces of stone, glass, or tile onto a surface. Most Roman villas, the country houses of the wealthy, had at least one colorful mosaic. 4


3. FRESCOES Frescoes A fresco is a painting made on damp plaster. Roman artists used this technique to brighten the walls of Roman homes. This fresco from the ruins of Pompeii reflects a couple's pride at being able to read and write–she holds tools for writing and he a scroll. 5

PowerPoint Presentation:

What does this surviving wall painting from the ancient Roman city of Pompeii tell us aboout the lifestyle of the upper class? 6

B. Learning and Literature:

B. Learning and Literature Romans borrowed much of their philosophy from the Greeks. Stoicism, the philosophy of the Greek teacher Zeno, was especially influential. Stoicism encouraged virtue, duty, moderation, and endurance. In literature, as in philosophy, the Romans found inspiration in the works of their Greek neighbors. While often following Greek forms and models, Roman writers promoted their own themes and ideas. The poet Virgil spent ten years writing the most famous work of Latin literature, the Aeneid (ih•NEE•ihd), the epic of the legendary Aeneas. Virgil modeled the Aeneid, written in praise of Rome and Roman virtues, after the Greek epics of Homer. Here he speaks of government as being Rome's most important contribution to civilization: PRIMARY SOURCE Romans, never forget that government is your medium! Be this your art:–to practice men in habit of peace, generosity to the conquered, and firmness against aggressors. VIRGIL, Aeneid 7

C. Master Builders:

C. Master Builders 1. Colosseum Visitors from all over the empire marveled at the architecture of Rome. The arch, the dome, and concrete were combined to build spectacular structures, such as the Colosseum. 8

Before domes, there were rectangular buildings:

Before domes, there were rectangular buildings Almost all ancient buildings had roofs supported by forests of columns. The columns prevented the heavy roofs from collapsing, but they left very little open interior space. 9

Soon, ancient engineers began experimenting with arches.:

Soon, ancient engineers began experimenting with arches. Around 100 A.D., Roman builders rotated an arch in a circle and discovered that it created a strong three-dimensional shape -- the monolithic dome. In time, they were capping churches and mosques with this new and brilliant design. 10

The earliest domes were made of stone.:

The earliest domes were made of stone . The earliest masonry dome, the Pantheon, was so heavy that engineers carved intricate shapes, called coffers, along the walls to reduce the weight of the enormous structure. They also gouged a hole, called an oculus, at the top, which created a daily light show for which the Pantheon is still famous. 11


THE PANTHEON One need only look at many public buildings in the United States to realize that Roman architectural models played an important role in their design. Thomas Jefferson, for example, believed that architecture could be a means for expressing the ideals of the newly founded United States. He wanted the ideals of classical architecture, especially as put into practice by the Romans, to serve as a model for American buildings. Jefferson copied Roman temples for his designs for the buildings of the University of Virginia at Charlottesville. 12


2. ARCHES AND AQUEDUCTS Arches also supported bridges and aqueducts. Aqueducts were designed by Roman engineers to bring water into cities and towns. When the water channel spanned a river or ravine, the aqueduct was lifted high up on arches. This Roman aqueduct in modern France has survived the centuries. The cross section indicates how the water moved within the aqueduct. 13


3. ROMAN ROADS Roman roads were also technological marvels. The army built a vast network of roads constructed of stone, concrete, and sand that connected Rome to all parts of the empire. Many lasted into the Middle Ages; some are still used. The Roman Army built the great roads connecting the Empire. A base was laid of logs and stones, and on top of that were layers of variously sized stones, broken tiles, mud, sand and concrete, with sloping sides (camber) for drainage. 14

PowerPoint Presentation:

Rome was famous for was their system of roads. Romans built over 53,000 miles (85,000 kilometers) of roads to connect every part of their empire. The roads were mostly built by the army and were all done by hand. The system of roads connected together every province in the empire. The Romans had a saying "All roads lead to Rome." One could start traveling on a Roman road in northwest Africa, travel around the entire Mediterranean sea, end up in Rome and never have left a Roman road. 15


ROMAN LAW EVOLVES?! One of Rome’s chief gifts to the Mediterranean world of its day and to later generations was its system of law. Rome’s first code of laws was the Twelve Tables, which was adopted in 450 B.C. This code was a product of a simple farming society and proved inadequate for later Roman needs. From the Twelve Tables, the Romans developed a more sophisticated system of civil law. This system applied only to Roman citizens, however. 16

D. Roman System of Law:

D. Roman System of Law As Rome expanded, legal questions arose that involved both Romans and non-Romans. The Romans found that although some of their rules of civil law could be used in these cases, special rules were often needed. These rules gave rise to a body of law known as the Law of Nations. The Romans came to identify the Law of Nations with natural law, or universal law based on reason. This enabled them to establish standards of justice that applied to all people. 17

Some of the most important principles of Roman law were::

Some of the most important principles of Roman law were: All persons had the right to equal treatment under the law. A person was considered innocent until proven guilty. A person should be punished only for actions, not thoughts. Any law that seemed unreasonable or grossly unfair could be set aside. The principles of Roman law endured to form the basis of legal systems in many European countries and of places influenced by Europe, including the United States of America. 18

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