A longer life transformer is a Smart transformer

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A longer life transformer must be a Smart transformer:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 1 A longer life transformer must be a Smart transformer A seminar By Peter Kung QPS Photronics Inc March 6 th 2011

A problem is happening across the power industry world wide:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 2 A problem is happening across the power industry world wide Transformers are supposed to last 40 years Yet typically they only last 25 to 30 years Concerns about remaining life and when the disaster would occur How could we avoid unplanned stoppage due to transformer failures?

Our Customers’ Pain:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 3 Our Customers’ Pain There were typically 730 transformer fire and explosions per year in the USA Many experts anticipate that this number will go up from 1% in 2001 to 2% in 2008 The emphasis on renewable will put more burden on the existing Transformers We expect Transformer failures to increase beyond 2% after 2008

Slide 4:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 4 Traditional Monitoring of Transformers Failure analysis of transformers with tap changers: (CIGRE failure statistic)

Our solution directly addresses the failure mechanisms and provide early warnings:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 5 Our solution directly addresses the failure mechanisms and provide early warnings Tap changer Windings Bushing Tank PD monitoring Hot Spots, vibration Vibration Hot spots Moisture PD PD ,moisture for paper type Temperature

Transformer Fire:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 6 Transformer Fire

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5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 7

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5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 8

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5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 9

Example of a bushing failure –tank rupture:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 10 Example of a bushing failure –tank rupture

Another bushing failure at a 400 kV Generator Step-up unit :

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 11 Another bushing failure at a 400 kV Generator Step-up unit

QPS makes your transformer Smart with Transformer Guard X:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 12 QPS makes your transformer Smart with Transformer Guard X VibroFibre sensors measuring both vibration and temperature Moisture/temperature sensors Acoustic emission sensors for PD detection Allowing customers to collect these important test data and perform correlation and diagnostics X denotes with specially designed sensors that can be installed on the external walls of a working transformer

What users want:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 13 What users want Sensors to be mounted on the outside walls of the power transformer Shut down time of less than 24 hours to install our solution Sensors should have > 25 years of life and perform constant self calibration Provides data that customer can correlate and analyze Help customer develop a residual life model for each transformer and effect repairs way ahead of failures

Why fiber optics?:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 14 Why fiber optics? Immune to high voltage and strong electromagnetic filed. Helps to cope with the problem of noise due to electrostatic or electromagnetic fields for measuring vibration in switchyard and transformer equipment.

Where are these problems coming from?:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 15 Where are these problems coming from? Life of the high voltage power transformer is very dependent on the operating temperature and moisture in the insulation paper, holding blocks and the lubrication oil Same situation for moisture in SF6 inside the GIS Actual shorts can occur due to movement and distortion in the windings Progress of its deterioration can be measured in the form of partial discharge activities

Introducing our Vibrofibre:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 16 Introducing our Vibrofibre

VibroFiber sensors can measure both temperature and vibration:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 17 VibroFiber sensors can measure both temperature and vibration Allow customers to correlate these important parameters with changes in load and ambient temperature on both main tank and load tap changer One set of 2-4 at the upper part of the tank where temperature is expected to be the highest Another set of 2-4 at the lower part of the tank with the lowest temperature These are designed with a noise absorber to minimize noise from the ambient The noise absorber will also insulate the sensor from the outside ambient

Twin gratings Cavity:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 18 Twin gratings Cavity

FBG Cavity Reflection Spectrum showing all the fringes:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 19 FBG Cavity Reflection Spectrum showing all the fringes

These fringes have a bandwidth of 48 pm :

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 20 These fringes have a bandwidth of 48 pm These fringes are much narrower and give rise to higher sensitivities and also convert wavelength changes to voltages signal we can understand

Temperature:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 21 Temperature Every 6-8 degrees C rise in operating temperature would shorten the life by a factor of 2 Operating temperature would also be affected by environmental temperature The highest temperature would be found at the top of the transformer tank It is also important to find the temperature gradient from the top to the bottom of the tank

The benefits of Vibration and Temperature measurement:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 22 The benefits of Vibration and Temperature measurement Hot spots indicating localized heating, circulating currents, blocked cooling, tap changer problems, and loose connections Increased in vibration means windings have moved and become closer; causing stronger electromagnetic interaction A distribution of the frequencies will indicate relative distances between windings

Absolute temperature measurement:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 23 Absolute temperature measurement One absolute temperature sensor is installed at the top portion of the Transformer and another is installed at the bottom These form the reference for all other dual function sensors, vibration/temperature rise and also humidity/temperature sensors

Two FBGs are used to measure absolute temperature:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 24 Two FBGs are used to measure absolute temperature

Low Frequency Vibration Analysis:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 25 Low Frequency Vibration Analysis Internal core, coil, and shield problems; loose parts Vibration and temperature measurement at the coolant pump will highlight bad bearings Early prognostics will avoid major heating problem and accidental fire

What we can learn from frequency analysis:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 26 What we can learn from frequency analysis Detects significant differences in low frequency response, shift of existing resonance, creation of new resonance, change in shape of distribution would potentially indicate mechanical or electrical problem with the winding and core of Transformer

Acoustic emission PD sensors:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 27 Acoustic emission PD sensors Measures higher frequencies 50KHz to 150KHz Can be installed at the tap changer, bushing, transformer walls, coolant pump and cooling fan Resulted from corona at bushings, and mechanical & bearing problems in pumps and cooling fans Internal partial discharge, arcing, sparking, loose shields, poor bushing connections, bad tap changer contacts, core ground problems, and weak insulation that is causing corona Data can be correlated to moisture and temperature measurement

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5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 28 Ability to measure high frequency

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5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 29 fault location detectors

Moisture:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 30 Moisture Moisture can be in oil inside the transformer or in SF6 gas in switch gear Total moisture as a result of temperature affecting the solubility of moisture in oil , with the insulating paper and internal pressed wood holding blocks acting as the reservoir Relating partial discharge events to measured total moisture

Moisture In Oil:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 31 Moisture In Oil Moisture in oil is destructive to cellulose, especially in the presence of oxygen Presence of moisture will facilitate partial discharge Fiber-optics moisture sensor is part of the solution With protective packaging Material allows complete oil penetration

Protecting our sensors from noise with a miniature acoustic chamber:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 32 Protecting our sensors from noise with a miniature acoustic chamber

Like this:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 33 Like this

The package floor will only sense from inside the transformer:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 34 The package floor will only sense from inside the transformer

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5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 35

Typical configuration:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 36 Typical configuration 3 modules per transformer , vibration, moisture and PD Each module supports 4 or 8 sensors PD module has 4 acoustics sensors with source location firmware Another module holds 2 absolute temperature sensors , 2 to 6 moisture/temperature sensors) Another module contains 8 vibration/temperature sensors System unit holds 12 modules which supports 3 Transformers in a 3U 19 inch rack mount with a communication module with internet support

Ball park price for Transformer Guard X:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 37 Ball park price for Transformer Guard X The main frame costs is 25K USD The support for each transformer which includes the 3 modules and other peripherals would cost 60K USD including sensors , hermetic junction plates and composite cables Total cost of is therefore 85K for the first fully loaded Smart Transformer Guard and 60K for each additional transformer Guard protecting up to 3 transformers

Slide 38:

5/3/2011 VibroFibre makes a difference 38 38 Please contact Peter Kung for more information Telephone 1-514-697-4728 Cell phone 1-514-578-6766 Email peter@qpscom.com Thank you for your attention

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