SISTEM GERAK PADA MANUSIA YULIANA DETHA

Views:
 
Category: Entertainment
     
 

Presentation Description

sistem gerak pada tubuh manusia

Comments

Presentation Transcript

PowerPoint Presentation:

SISTEM GERAK PADA MANUSIA SK/KD/INDIKATOR MATERI KUIS LINK STANDAR KOMPETENSI Menjelaskan struktur dan fungsi organ manusia dan hewan tertentu, kelainan/penyakit yang mungkin terjadi serta implikasinya pada salingtemas. KOMPETENSI DASAR Menjelaskan keterkaitan antara struktur, fungsi, dan proses serta kelainan/penyakit yang dapat terjadi pada sistem gerak pada manusia INDIKATOR Mengidentifikasi struktur dan fungsi tulang dan otot dalam sistem gerak Mengurutkan proses terjadinya sebuah gerakan.

Interesting Facts about the Skeletal System:

Do we have more bones when we are a baby or when we are all grown up? Baby has 305 bones and an adult has 206 bones. This is because as we grown some of our bones join together to form one bone. The longest bone in our bodies is the femur (thigh bone). The smallest bone is the stirrup bone inside the ear. Each hand has 26 bones in it. our nose and ears are not made of bone; they are made of cartilage, a flexible substance that is not as hard as bone. Differences between males and females : Males and females have slightly different skeletons, including a different elbow angle. Males have slightly thicker and longer legs and arms; females have a wider pelvis and a larger space within the pelvis, through which babies travel when they are born. Interesting Facts about the Skeletal System

Lets look at the skeleton:

Lets look at the skeleton The Skeleton is the name given to the collection of bones that holds our body up. Without the trunk and branches of a tree, were would the leaves be? Without your skeleton, where would you be?

Types of Skeletons:

Types of Skeletons Exo-skeleton: animals that have shells Endo-skeleton: hard structure inside the animal. Hydrostatic skeleton: Fluid held inside the body No skeleton

Understanding bone strength:

Understanding bone strength Bone Strength Activity In your groups…….. Take a sheet of paper and curl it up. Put a piece of sticking tape on to hold it. Place as many weights on this hollow structure as possible How much weight do you think it will hold?

PowerPoint Presentation:

Function of the Skeletal System Support- framework that supports body and cradles its soft organs Protection- for delicate organs, heart, lungs, brain Movement- bones act as levers for muscles Mineral storage- calcium & phosphate Blood cell formation- hematopoiesis

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system Bones (skeleton) Joints Cartilages Ligaments (bone to bone)(tendon=bone to muscle) Divided into two divisions Axial skeleton Appendicular skeleton – limbs and girdle

PowerPoint Presentation:

Long Bones- metacarples, metatarsals, phelangies, humerus, ulna, radius, tibia, fibula Short Bones- carpals, tarsals Flat Bones- rib, scapula, skull, sternum Irregular Bones- vertebrae, some facial bones Sesamoid- patella Types of Bones

PowerPoint Presentation:

Bone Classification

PowerPoint Presentation:

Classification of Bones Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Long bones Typically longer than wide Have a shaft with heads at both ends Contain mostly compact bone Examples: Femur, humerus

PowerPoint Presentation:

Gross Anatomy of a Long Bone Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Diaphysis Shaft Composed of compact bone Epiphysis Ends of the bone Composed mostly of spongy bone Figure 5.2a

275 bones 12 weeks (6-9 inches long) :

275 bones 12 weeks (6-9 inches long) Fetal Skeleton

PowerPoint Presentation:

cartilage calcified cartilage bone epiphyseal plate epiphyseal line Endochondral Ossification 2 o ossification center Fetus: 1 st 2 months Adult Childhood Just before birth

PowerPoint Presentation:

Osteoblast Osteocyte Osteoclast Eats bone Builds new bone Mature bone cell Bone cells that aid in remodeling

PowerPoint Presentation:

Structures of a Long Bone Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Periosteum Outside covering of the diaphysis Fibrous connective tissue membrane Sharpey’s fibers Secure periosteum to underlying bone Arteries Supply bone cells with nutrients Figure 5.2c

PowerPoint Presentation:

Classification of Bones Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Short bones Generally cube-shape Contain mostly spongy bone Examples: Carpals, tarsals

PowerPoint Presentation:

Classification of Bones Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Flat bones Thin and flattened Usually curved Thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone Examples: Skull, ribs, sternum

PowerPoint Presentation:

Classification of Bones Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Irregular bones Irregular shape Do not fit into other bone classification categories Example: Vertebrae and hip

PowerPoint Presentation:

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Surface features of bones Sites of attachments for muscles, tendons, and ligaments Passages for nerves and blood vessels Categories of bone markings Projections and processes – grow out from the bone surface Depressions or cavities – indentations

Sesamoid Bones:

Sesamoid Bones Extra Bones Found in Certain Tendons i.e. Patella

PowerPoint Presentation:

Types of Bone Cells Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Osteocytes Mature bone cells Osteoblasts Bone-forming cells Osteoclasts Bone-destroying cells Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium Bone remodeling is a process by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts

PowerPoint Presentation:

Types of Bone Cells Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Osteocytes Mature bone cells Osteoblasts Bone-forming cells Osteoclasts Bone-destroying cells Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium Bone remodeling is a process by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts

PowerPoint Presentation:

Changes in the Human Skeleton Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings In embryos, the skeleton is primarily hyaline cartilage During development, much of this cartilage is replaced by bone Cartilage remains in isolated areas Bridge of the nose Parts of ribs Joints

PowerPoint Presentation:

Changes in the Human Skeleton Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Initially collagen fibers secreted by fibroblasts Cartilage deposited between the fibers Skeleton fully formed by 2 nd month of fetal development (all cartilage) Ossification begins after 8 th week of fetal development

PowerPoint Presentation:

Bone Growth Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Epiphyseal plates allow for growth of long bone during childhood New cartilage is continuously formed Older cartilage becomes ossified Cartilage is broken down Bone replaces cartilage

PowerPoint Presentation:

Bones of the Human Body Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The skeleton has 206 bones Two basic types of bone tissue Compact bone Homogeneous Spongy bone Small needle-like pieces of bone Many open spaces Figure 5.2b

PowerPoint Presentation:

Microscopic Anatomy of Bone Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.3

PowerPoint Presentation:

Based on the substance composition, the bone can be divided into hard bone and cartilage. Based on the characteristic of its motion, articulation is difference as sinartrosis (dead joints)=sutura amfiartrosis (stiff joints)= columnar vertebrate diartrosis (joint motion)= the joint between femur and tibia

PowerPoint Presentation:

Relations between the bones with one another are called articulation or joint. According to the direction of motion, joint is distinguished as bullets joint=shoulder with upper arm hinge joints=elbow or knees swivel joints=atlas bone with axis bone saddle joints=finger and palm sliding joints=palm and sool joints kondiloid = hand wrist

PowerPoint Presentation:

Based on the substance composition, the bone can be divided into hard bone and cartilage. Based on the characteristic of its motion, articulation is difference as sinartrosis (dead joints)=sutura amfiartrosis (stiff joints)= columnar vertebrate diartrosis (joint motion)= the joint between femur and tibia

PowerPoint Presentation:

Relations between the bones with one another are called articulation or joint. According to the direction of motion, joint is distinguished as bullets joint=shoulder with upper arm hinge joints=elbow or knees swivel joints=atlas bone with axis bone saddle joints=finger and palm sliding joints=palm and sool joints kondiloid= hand wrist

PowerPoint Presentation:

MATERI STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI TULANG STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI OTOT

PowerPoint Presentation:

Sebagai pembentuk rangka tubuh Sebagai sistem gerak pasif karena adanya sendi Sebagai penyimpan Kalsium, Fosfor, Natrium dan elemen lain Sebagai penghasil sel-sel darah Proteksi terhadap organ tubuh yang lemah Pembentuk Limfosit B sebagai sistem immunologis tubuh STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI TULANG FUNGSI TULANG LANJUT

PowerPoint Presentation:

STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI TULANG TENGKORAK = 28 BUAH TULANG SERVIK = 7 BUAH RANGKA AKSIAL TULANG TORAKAL = 12 BUAH TULANG LUMBAL = 5 BUAH TULANG SAKRUM = 5 BUAH TULANG KOKSIGEA = 4 BUAH TULANG RUSUK SEJATI = 7 PS TULANG RUSUK PALSU = 3 PS TULANG RUSUK MELAYANG TULANG RUSUK MELAYANG =2 PS TULANG DADA = 3 BUAH Rangka manusia terdiri atas RANGKA AKSIAL dan RANGKA APENDIKULER LANJUT Kembali

PowerPoint Presentation:

STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI TULANG RANGKA APENDIKULER Rangka Apendikuler atau rangka tam-bahan Merupakan rangka pendukung gerak/lokomosi. Terdiri atas Tungkai Atas dan Tungkai Bawah TUNGKAI ATAS TUNGKAI BAWAH KEMBAL

PowerPoint Presentation:

STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI TULANG BAGIAN-BAGIAN TUNGKAI ATAS Klavikula = 1 ps Skapula = 1 ps Humerus = 1 ps Ulna = 1 ps Radius = 1 ps Carpal = 1 ps Metacarpal = 4 ps Phalanges = 5 ps 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 KEMBAL

PowerPoint Presentation:

STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI TULANG BAGIAN-BAGIAN TUNGKAI BAWAH KOKSEA = 1 PASANG PETALA = 1 PASANG FEMUR = 1 PASANG FIBULA = 1 PASANG TIBIA = 1 PASANG TARSAL = 1 PASANG METATARSAL = 4 PASANG PALANGES = 5 PASANG KEMBALI 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

PowerPoint Presentation:

BAGIAN–BAGIAN PENYUSUN TULANG Bagian Penyusun Tulang Sumber :www.homepage.mac.com Epipise Proksimal Diapisis Episise Distal Tulang Spon Garis Epipise Arteri Medula Cavity Garis Epipise Tulang Kompak Sumsum Kuning Sumsum Merah Periosteum Tulang Kompak Periosteum Tulang Spon Endosteum 1 2 3 2 1 3 4 5 6 3 2 4 1 1 2 3

PowerPoint Presentation:

STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI TULANG BAGIAN – BAGIAN TULANG TENGKORAK Sumber : www.infovisual.info TULANG-TULANG TENGKORAK KEMBAL

PowerPoint Presentation:

STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI TULANG Bagian Penyusun Tulang Dada Sumber :www.medicalook.com/systems_images 7 5 4 6 1 Jugular Tautan rusuk Jugular Sternal Angle Badan Kipoid Manubrium 3 Penghubung Klaikula 2 KEMBAL

PowerPoint Presentation:

Sebagai alat gerak aktif karena memiliki kemampuan Kontraksi, Ektensi dan Relaksasi Sebagai Penyimpan gula dalam bentuk glikogen otot STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI OTOT FUNGSI OTOT MACAM OTOT STRUKTUR OTOT KONTRAKSI OTOT Kembali ANIMASI AKTIVASI OTOT ANIMASI KONTRAKSI OTOT

PowerPoint Presentation:

STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI OTOT MACAM OTOT MACAM OTOT OTOT POLOS OTOT RANGKA OTOT JANTUNG Ciri dan fungsi a. Fusiform shape b. Involuntary One nuclei in the centre Ciri dan fungsi a. voluntary b. Has not branch c. Composed of miofibril Ciri dan fungsi a. involuntary b. Has branch c. Nuclei located in the middle Kembali

PowerPoint Presentation:

Tendon Selaput otot Epimisium Fasikulus Endomisium Sarkolema Sarkoplasma Mio fibril Nukleus Serabut Otot Perimisium STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI OTOT STRUKTUR OTOT Kembali

PowerPoint Presentation:

STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI OTOT KONTRAKSI OTOT aktin Miosin Otot Berektensi Zona H memanjang Zona I memanjang Band A melebar Miosin aktin Otot Relaksasi Zona H normal Zona I normal Band A normal Miosin aktin Otot Berkontraksi Zona H menyempit Zona I memendek Band A memendek Lanjut Lanjut Kembali