Global Warming


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Global Warming:

Global Warming


Introduction Is the world getting warmer? If so, are the actions of mankind to blame for earth’s temperature increases? What can/should be done about these issues?

History of Earth’s Climate:

History of Earth’s Climate Earth formed ~4.6 billion years ago Originally very hot Sun’s energy output only 70% of present Liquid water present ~4.3 billion years

History of Earth’s Climate:

History of Earth’s Climate Life appeared ~3.8 billion years ago Photosynthesis began 3.5-2.5 billion years ago Produced oxygen and removed carbon dioxide and methane (greenhouse gases) Earth went through periods of cooling (“Snowball Earth”) and warming Earth began cycles of glacial and interglacial periods ~3 million years ago

Earth’s Temperature:

Sun Earth’s Temperature Solar Energy Solar Energy

Earth’s Temperature:

Sun Earth’s Temperature Solar Energy Radiation Cooling

Earth’s Temperature:

Sun Earth’s Temperature Solar Energy Radiation Cooling

Earth’s Temperature:

Sun Earth’s Temperature Solar Energy Radiation Cooling

Greenhouse Effect:

Greenhouse Effect Sun

Earth’s Atmospheric Gases:

Earth’s Atmospheric Gases Nitrogen (N 2 ) Oxygen (O 2 ) Water (H 2 O) Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) Methane (CH 4 ) Non- Greenhouse Gases 99% Greenhouse Gases 1%

Slide 12:

The U.S. emits about 6.4 billion metric tons of greenhouse gases annually, 25% of the world’s total. Carbon dioxide stays in the atmosphere for approximately 100 years, methane lasts about 12 years. Other greenhouse gases last even longer . As these gases continue to raise surface temperatures, they trigger the release of even greater quantities of carbon dioxide and methane that are currently trapped in frozen Arctic permafrost and tundra soils, further increasing temperatures. …potentially causing “runaway global warming”. 6.4 billion metric tons CO2/yr These greenhouse gases last a long time… Warming begets more warming… A feedback mechanism ensues…

Worldwide Carbon Emissions:

Worldwide Carbon Emissions Carbon (10 9 metric tons) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 Year Liquid fuel Total Gas fuel Solid fuel

Annual Carbon Emissions:

Annual Carbon Emissions Annual carbon emissions Atmospheric CO 2 Atmospheric CO 2 average 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 0 4 6 8 2 Year Carbon (10 9 metric tons)

Future Carbon Dioxide Levels:

Future Carbon Dioxide Levels Increasing CO 2 emissions, especially in China and developing countries Likely to double within 150 years: Increased coal usage Increased natural gas usage Decreased petroleum usage (increased cost and decreasing supply)

Slide 16:

40 % Of all U.S. greenhouse gas emissions come from households: Vehicles Home Heating Electricity Households are Big Contributors to Climate Change

Slide 17:

So how can each of us slow global warming now?

Slide 18:

Because greenhouse gas emissions are tied very closely to our energy consumption, using less fossil fuel based energy puts fewer greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. This will help slow global warming. Reduce our consumption of fossil fuels Mountaintop removal for coal mining near Rawl, West Virginia. 50% of electricity in the United States is produced from coal. (

Average Electricity Emission Factors :

Average Electricity Emission Factors

Kitchen Light Fixture:

Kitchen Light Fixture Three 60 Watt Bulbs

Slide 21:

18 W 3 bulbs 18 x3 54 W 10 hours a day 54 x 10 540 Wh/day 540x365 197,100 Wh/day 197,100 1000 197.1 kWh/yr

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197 kWh $115.34 $35.46 743.3 228.52 514.8 $79.88

Slide 23:

We can make some simple substitutions Replacing just 1 incandescent light bulb with 1 compact florescent bulb saves about 150 pounds of carbon dioxide per year! If every American household replaced just 5 high-use incandescent bulbs with compact florescent lights we'd collectively save more than $8 billion each year in energy costs and we would prevent the greenhouse gases equivalent to the emissions from nearly 10 million cars.

Slide 24:

Small changes really add up Replace your old refrigerator with a new Energy Star: Annual savings: $90; 700 pounds CO 2 Set your thermostat down a few degrees in the winter Annual savings: $135; 1400 pounds CO 2 Wash clothes in cold water only Annual savings: $70; 500 pounds CO 2 Drive JUST 10 fewer miles per week Annual savings: $80; 520 pounds CO 2 Reduce your garbage by 10% through greater recycling or reduced packaging Annual savings: 1200 pounds CO 2 Caulk and weather-strip around doors and windows Annual savings: $80; 650 pounds CO 2

Blowing Up Your World:

Blowing Up Your World How many are changing incandescent bulbs for new compact fluorescent bulbs? Changing one bulb could save 150 pounds of carbon dioxide per year! 10 pts u

Blowing Up Your World:

Blowing Up Your World 31 - 40 Very good. You're an environmentalist! 21 - 30 Good, you're starting to save the world. 11 - 20 Lots of room for improvement. 0 - 10 You're exiled to the town dump!

Changes In Environment:

Changes In Environment

Slide 28:

Each of us must take steps to protect our Earth's climate.

Slide 29:

Thank You Efforts by- Parul Bhardwaj VII-B, 7076

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