Indian Railways

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Indian Railways

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SUMMER TRAINING:

SUMMER TRAINING ON INDIAN RAILWAYS PRESENTED BY:PAWAN SAINI BRANCH: ECE ROLLNO-…..

TRAINING BASED ON:-:

TRAINING BASED ON:- Microwave Communication Optical Fiber Communication PRS and UTS FOIS COIS Railnet Telephone and Trunk Exchange Networking

ELABORATION :

ELABORATION

PowerPoint Presentation:

Microwaves are radiowaves with wavelengths ranging from as long as one meter to as short as one millimetre , or equivalently, with frequenices between 300 mhz (0.3 ghz ) and 300 ghz . this broad definition includes both uhf and ehf . Various sources use different boundaries. in all cases, microwave includes the entire shf band (3 to 30 ghz , or 10 to 1 cm) at minimum, with RF enginneering often putting the lower boundary at 1 ghz (30 cm), and the upper around 100 ghz (3 mm). What is Microwave Communication

Microwave propagation modes:

Microwave propagation modes microwaves, one generated, propagate in a straight line in all directions there are mainly 3 modes of propagation possible, and the mode is decided based on distance and terrain: LOS, Skywave Propagation, Ground Reflection Path

Line of Sight (LOS):

Line of Sight (LOS) Line-of-sight propagation refers to electromagnetic radiation or acoustic wave propagation. Electromagnetic transmission includes light emissions traveling in a straight line LoS (Line of Sight) – is a visible straight line between the sender and the receiver LoS propagation – propagation of microwaves in a straight line free from any obstructions

LOS Occurence:

LOS Occurence Tower A Tower B

LOS Problems:

LOS Problems

LOS Solution (Fresnel Zone):

LOS Solution (Fresnel Zone) Fresnel zone – eliptical area around the LoS between a sender and receiver. Microwaves spread into this area once are generated by an antenna. This area should be free of any obstacles:

LOS Solution (Fresnel Zone):

LOS Solution (Fresnel Zone)

ADVANTAGES:-:

ADVANTAGES:- Because of high frequency, more data can be sent through microwaves -> increased bandwidth, higher speeds Keep it as hop to hop connections. Can make MESH connections with the help of this.

Other Usages:

Other Usages carrier waves in satellite communications cellular communication bluetooth wimax wireless local area network GPS (Global Positioning System)

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