solid waste mgt-pavani

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Solid waste management:

Solid waste management Pavani Asst Prof GRCP Hyd

What are Wastes?:

2 What are Wastes? “substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of the law”

Classification of Wastes:

Classification of Wastes Solid waste- vegetable waste, kitchen waste, household waste etc. E-waste- discarded electronic devices like computer, TV, music systems etc. Liquid waste- water used for different industries eg tanneries, distillaries, thermal power plants Plastic waste- plastic bags, bottles, buckets etc. Metal waste- unused metal sheet, metal scraps etc. Nuclear waste- unused materials from nuclear power plants

Sources of Wastes:

5 Sources of Wastes Households Commerce and Industry

Sources of Wastes:

6 Sources of Wastes Agriculture Fisheries

Solid Waste in India:

Solid Waste in India 7.2 million tonnes of hazardous waste One Sq km of additional landfill area every-year Rs 1600 crore for treatment & disposal of these wastes In addition to this industries discharge about 150 million tonnes of high volume low hazard waste every year, which is mostly dumped on open low lying land areas. Source: Estimate of Ministry of Environment & Forest

Waste Collection in India:

Waste Collection in India Primarily by the city municipality -No gradation of waste product eg bio-degradable, glasses, polybags, paper shreds etc -Dumps these wastes to the city outskirts Local raddiwala / kabadiwala (Rag pickers) -Collecting small iron pieces by magnets -Collecting glass bottles -Collecting paper for recycling

Open Dumps:

10 Open Dumps Predominant method of waste disposal in developing countries Illegal dumping problems Groundwater contamination, air pollution, pest and health hazards

Ocean Dumping:

11 Ocean Dumping

How solid waste affected us in recent years?:

How solid waste affected us in recent years? Cloudburst in Mumbai (2005) clogged the sewage line due to large no. of plastic bags Blast in the Bhusan Steel factory at Noida , caused due to imported scrap from Iran Reduction in the number of migratory birds due to consumption of contaminated foods Stray animals dying on streets and farmland due to consumption of plastic bags, which blocks the food movement in their stomach

Solid Waste Management and Disposal:

13 Solid Waste Management and Disposal

Waste management:

Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal and monitoring of waste materials. The two conventional principles of waste management Waste management

PowerPoint Presentation:

RECOMMENDED APPROACHES TO WASTE PROCESSING & DISPOSAL I WEALTH FROM WASTE (PROCESSING OF ORGANIC WASTE) (A) WASTE TO COMPOST (i) AEROBIC / ANAEROBIC COMPOSTING (ii) VERMI-COMPOSTING (B) WASTE TO ENERGY (i) REFUSE DERIVED FUEL (RDF) / PELLETIZATION (ii) BIO-METHANATION II RECYCLING OF WASTE III SANITARY LANDFILLING IV TREATMENT OF BIO-MEDICAL WASTE SEPARATELY

WEALTH FROM WASTE (PROCESSING OF ORGANIC WASTE):

WEALTH FROM WASTE (PROCESSING OF ORGANIC WASTE)

Producing Mulch and Compost:

17 Producing Mulch and Compost Mulch is organic material used to protect areas where the soil is disturbed, or to control growth of unwanted vegetation. Organic material chopped or shredded into smaller pieces. Composting is using natural decomposition to transform organic material into compost (humus-like product). With proper management of air and water, composting can transform large quantities over a short period of time.

Composting:

18 Composting

Incineration and Types:

19 Incineration and Types Mass Burn - Everything smaller than major furniture and appliances loaded into furnace. Creates air pollution problems. Refuse-Derived Fuel - Refuse is sorted to remove recyclable and unburnable materials. Higher energy content than raw trash. Reduces disposal volume by 80-90%. Residual ash sent to landfills and usually contains toxic material.

PowerPoint Presentation:

20 Mass-Burn Garbage Incinerator Mass-Burn Garbage Incinerator

WASTE TO ENERGY:

WASTE TO ENERGY Refuse derived fuel (RDF) / pelletization Material separation, size reduction and pelletizing

Incineration:

22 Incineration Incinerators drastically reduce the amount of municipal waste. Up to 90% by volume and 75% by weight. Primary risks of incineration involve air quality problems and toxicity and disposal of ash. Even with modern pollution controls, small amounts of pollutants still released into environment Cost of land and construction for new incinerators are also major concerns facing many communities. U.S. EPA has not looked favorably on construction of new waste-to-energy facilities. Encouraged recycling and source reduction as more effective solutions to deal with solid waste.

WASTE MINIMISATION :

WASTE MINIMISATION Prevention of waste being created is known as waste reduction which is an important method of waste management . The modern concepts based on the three ‘R’s are: Reduce, Reuse and Recycle .

PowerPoint Presentation:

24 The best place to practice conserving resources is at home. Individuals can substantially REDUCE, REUSE, AND RECYCLE waste and conserve resources

REDUCE: cut the amount of WASTE used: :

25 REDUCE: cut the amount of WASTE used: SOLID WASTE (consuming and conserving): Packaging: Choose products with minimal packaging to reduce Paper Products: Reduce the amount of paper products used Other: Identify products and practices to reduce waste toxicity.

REDUCE: cut the amount of ENERGY used: :

26 REDUCE: cut the amount of ENERGY used: Lighting Surface Units Refrigerators / Freezers Ovens

REDUCE: cut the amount of WATER used::

27 REDUCE: cut the amount of WATER used: Faucets Dishwashing Cooking Methods

REUSE: Products that you can use again :

28 REUSE: Products that you can use again

PowerPoint Presentation:

Processing of a waste item into usable forms. Benefits of recycling: -Reduce environmental degradation -Making money out of waste -Save energy that would have gone into waste handling & product manufacture Saving through recycling: -When Al is resmelted- considerable saving in cost -Making paper from waste saves 50% energy -Every tonne of recycled glass saves energy equivalent to 100 litres of oil

:

30 Solutions: Choose recyclable products Select products made from recycled materials Compost yard clippings and some food scraps.

Benefits of Recycling:

Benefits of Recycling

Closed loop recycling :

Closed loop recycling "Closed loop" recycling is basically a production process in which post-consumer waste is collected, recycled and used to make new products. This process can be as simple as using recycled aluminum to make new cans, or as complicated as weaving reclaimed plastic bottles into polyester for clothing and other products.

Recycling is not a solution to all problems!:

Recycling is not a solution to all problems! Recycling is not a solution to managing every kind of waste material For many items recycling technologies are unavailable or unsafe In some cases, cost of recycling is too high.

Source Reduction:

34 Source Reduction Simplest way to reduce waste is to prevent it from ever becoming waste in the first place. Source reduction is the practice of designing, manufacturing, purchasing, using and reusing materials so that the amount of waste or its toxicity is reduced. Design Changes Since 2-liter soft drink bottle introduced in 1977, weight has been reduced by 25%. Manufacturing Processes Reduce waste, increase efficiency. Purchasing Decisions Choose reduced packaging and plan quantities accordingly. Reusing Items Delay or prevent entry of items into waste collection stream.

Sanitary Landfills:

Sanitary Landfills More than 1,200 of the 1,500 existing landfills in the U.S. have closed . Many major cities must export their trash. 35

PowerPoint Presentation:

36 Sanitary Landfills

PowerPoint Presentation:

Biomedical waste , (BMW), consists of solids, liquids, sharps, and laboratory waste that are potentially infectious or dangerous It must be properly managed to protect the general public, specifically healthcare and sanitation workers who are regularly exposed to biomedical waste as an occupational hazard.

Dealing with Material Use and Wastes:

Dealing with Material Use and Wastes

HIERARCHY OF WASTE MINIMIZATION:

HIERARCHY OF WASTE MINIMIZATION

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