water pollution 1-pavani

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Minamata disease

What is Minamata Disease?:

What is Minamata Disease? The most massive pollution problem to strike Japan in the post WWII period. A neurological syndrome caused by methyl mercury in the industrial wastewater caused by eating large quantities of fish and shellfish polluted by methyl mercury in factory wastewater. ( Chisso corporation) Continued from 1932 to 1968 ( 36 years) 2 cities ( Minamata and Niigata were affected in Japan)

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The methyl mercury that enters the body mainly attacks the central nervous system, including the brain., and causes various symptoms including numbness and unsteadiness in the legs and hands, tiredness, ringing in the ears, narrowing of the field of vision, loss of hearing, slurred speech, and awkward movements.

Consequences:

Consequences 2,955 victims have been officially recognized (2,009 of whom have died) as of March 2006 Over 10,000 have received financial compensation from the Chisso co. Over 2 million people may have eaten fish contaminated with methyl mercury from the Chisso factory

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WHO: 3.4 million premature deaths each year from waterborne diseases 1.9 million from diarrhea 1.5 million illnesses 1993 Milwaukee 400,000 sick, 104 deaths

Water pollution :

Water pollution

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Water makes us unique and gives life to Earth.

Water pollution :

Water pollution Water pollution is any chemical, physical or biological change in the quality of water that has a harmful effect on any living thing that drinks or uses or lives (in) it. Addition of any material or energy sources to water in such concentration and for such duration that man, animal or any other organisms cannot enjoy the beneficial qualities of water Water pollution includes all of the waste materials that cannot be naturally broken down by water

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Water quality refers to the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of water. It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose.

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Water quality

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1.Physical Indicators/ assessment Water Temperature Specifics Conductance or EC, Electrical Conductance, Conductivity Total suspended solids (TSS) Transparency or Turbidity Total dissolved solids (TDS) Odor of Water Color of water Taste of Water

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2.Chemical Indicators/ assessment pH Total Hardness, Hard water, TH = Permanent Hardness + Temporary Hardness Dissolved oxygen (DO) Nitrate-N Orthophosphates Chemical oxygen demand (COD) Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) Pesticides Heavy metals

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3.Biological Indicators/ assessment Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera Trichoptera Escherichia Coli or E.Coli Coliform Aquatic animals

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chemicals in drinking water Fluoride . Fluoride in the water is essential for protection against dental caries and weakening of the bones, but higher levels can have an adverse effect on health. In India, high fluoride content is found naturally in the waters in Rajasthan. Arsenic . High concentrations of arsenic in water can have an adverse effect on health. Lead . Pipes, fittings, solder, and the service connections of some household plumbing systems contain lead that contaminates the drinking water source. Petrochemicals . Petrochemicals contaminate the groundwater from underground petroleum storage tanks. Other heavy metals . These contaminants come from mining waste and tailings, landfills, or hazardous waste dumps. Chlorinated solvents . Metal and plastic effluents, fabric cleaning, electronic and aircraft manufacturing are often discharged and contaminate groundwater.

Point Sources:

Point Sources Some point sources of water pollution include Waste products from factories Waste from sewage system Waste from power plants Waste from underground coal mines Waste from oil wells They are called point sources because they are direct sources of water pollution and can be reduced and monitored

Example of a point source :

Example of a point source

Non-point Sources:

Non-point Sources The term non-point source encompasses a large range of sources such as: when rain or snow moves through the ground and picks up pollutants as it moves towards a major body of water the runoff of fertilizers from farm animals and crop land air pollutants getting washed or deposited to earth storm water drainage from lawns, parking lots, and streets

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Examples of NPS oil & grease from cars fertilizers animal waste grass clippings septic systems sewage & cleaners from boats household cleaning products litter

Non-point source: Agricultural runoff:

Non-point source: Agricultural runoff

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NONPOINT SOURCES Urban streets Suburban development Wastewater treatment plant Rural homes Cropland Factory Animal feedlot POINT SOURCES

Major Sources of Water Pollution:

Major Sources of Water Pollution Agriculture: by far the leader Sediment, fertilizers, bacteria from livestock, food processing, salt from soil irrigation Industrial: factories and powerplants Mining: surface mining toxics, acids, sediment

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Potential Sources of Pollutants Found in Residential Areas Nutrients : Fertilizers and septic systems Pathogens: Pet waste and septic systems Sediment : Construction, road sand, soil erosion Toxic : Pesticides, household products Debris : Litter and illegal dumping Thermal : heated runoff, removal of streamside vegetation

Pollutants from Agriculture:

Pollutants from Agriculture Sediment Nutrients Pathogens Pesticides

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Why are these pollutants important ? Sedimen t reduces light penetration in stream, clogs gills of fish and aquatic invertebrates. Nutrients act as fertilizer for algae & aquatic plants which can cause highly varying dissolved oxygen levels. At low DO levels, the aquatic life has the potential to be harmed. Toxics can impact life and contaminate drinking water supplies. Bacteria/Pathogens are an indicator of possible viruses present in the system .

Effects of Water Pollution:

Effects of Water Pollution Affects humans, the environment, ecosystems and the economy . Spread of disease : Drinking polluted water can cause cholera or typhoid infections, along with diarrhea. Affects body organs : The consumption of highly contaminated water can cause injury to the heart and kidneys. Harms the food chain : Toxins within water can harm aquatic organisms, thus breaking a link in the food chain. Causes growth of algae in water : Urea, animal manure and vegetable peelings are food for algae. Algae grow according to how much waste is in a water source. Bacteria feed off the algae, decreasing the amount of oxygen in the water. The decreased oxygen causes harm to other organisms living in the water.

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Harms animals and birds: Birds that get into oil-contaminated water die from exposure to cold water and air due to feather damage. Other animals are affected when they eat dead fish in contaminated streams. Suffocation of aquatic life through sediment and loss of water depth

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Cause Water-borne diseases Bacterial infections Typhoid Cholera Paratyphoid fever Bacillary dysentery Viral infections Infectious Hepatitis (jaundice) Poliomyelitis Protozoal infections Amoebic dysentery

BOD effects:

BOD effects Oxygen available to aquatic organisms is found in the form of dissolved oxygen. Oxygen gas is dissolved in a stream through aeration, diffusion from the atmosphere, and photosynthesis of aquatic plants and algae. Plants and animals in the stream consume oxygen in order to produce energy through respiration. In a healthy stream, oxygen is replenished faster than it is used by aquatic organisms.

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In some streams, aerobic bacteria decompose such a large volume of organic material that oxygen is depleted from the stream faster than it can be replaced. The resulting decrease in dissolved oxygen is known as the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD).

Eutrophication :

Eutrophication Eutrophication refers to an excessive amount of nutrients in a body of water, usually caused by runoff of nutrients (mainly phosphorous in freshwater and nitrogen in saltwater) from the land, which causes a dense growth of plant life, leading to a decrease in oxygen supply, which causes the death of animals.

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Centuries

Biomagnification :

Biomagnification The increasing concentration of a substance, such as a toxic chemical, in the tissues of organisms at successively higher levels in a food chain. As a result of biomagnification, organisms at the top of the food chain generally suffer greater harm from a persistent toxin or pollutant than those at lower levels. DDT, DDE, PCBs, toxaphene, and the organic forms of mercury and arsenic do biomagnify in nature 'persistent organic pollutants ' or POP s.

Ground water pollution:

Ground water pollution

Metal poisoning :

Metal poisoning

Control of water pollution :

Control of water pollution -Treating waste waters and removing pollutants

Preliminary treatment units:

Preliminary treatment units Remove constituents in waste water which interfere with subsequent treatment processes

Secondary :

Secondary

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Water Pollution Solutions The best solution for water pollution is prevention . While pollution that has already occurred is a current threat to all life on Earth, attempts to clean it up may cause even more harm. Chemicals used to treat or clean up oil spills may further contaminate water supplies. Adjustments in temperature to counteract heat or cooling pollution may not achieve proper balance, leading to more loss of aquatic life. Preventing water pollution does more for the environment by halting the level of pollutants where they are. This gives the environment needed time to begin to correct itself, and time for scientists to determine the best way to combat existing problems.

How can I prevent water pollution? :

How can I prevent water pollution? Conserve water ; the less water you use, the less will be running down the drains and into gutters, carrying pollutants with it. 􀂃 Use pesticides sparingly ; in general, people tend to use 10 to 50 times more fertilizer on their lawns and gardens than is necessary for good plant health or, use compost to fertilize your garden. 􀂃 Keep your vehicles running properly . If you have an oil leak, fix it immediately, and if you change your own oil, dispose of the used oil properly. 􀂃 Use natural cleaners , such as baking soda, vinegar and borax. 􀂃 Use detergents with less phosphate ; sewage plants can only remove about 30 percent of the phosphates from waste. It is estimated that, in the United States, between 90.7 million and 226.8 million kilograms of phosphates are added into waterways each year.

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Conserve water by turning off the tap when running water is not necessary. This helps prevent water shortages and reduces the amount of contaminated water that needs treatment. Be careful about what you throw down your sink or toilet. Don’t throw paints, oils or other forms of litter down the drain. Use environmentally friendly household products, such as washing powder, household cleaning agents and toiletries. Take great care not to overuse pesticides and fertilisers. This will prevent runoffs of the material into nearby water sources.

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Dissolved air flotation system for treating industrial wastewater Retention basin for controlling urban runoff

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Storm water pollution prevention

Solution :

Solution

Nonpoint Sources:

Nonpoint Sources Reduce runoff

Nonpoint Sources:

Nonpoint Sources Buffer Zones Near Streams

Nonpoint:

Nonpoint Prevent soil erosion and only apply needed pesticides and fertilizers

Technological Approach: Using Wetlands to Treat Sewage:

Technological Approach: Using Wetlands to Treat Sewage

Point Sources:

Point Sources Most developed countries use laws to set water pollution standards. Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act 1972, ’77, ’87) Regulates navigable waterways..streams, wetlands, rivers, lake

Clean Water Act:

Clean Water Act Sets standards for key pollutants Requires permits for discharge Requires sewage treatment Require permits for wetland destruction Does not deal with nonpoint sources well Goal All Waterways fishable and swimable

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Fortunately, Earth is forgiving and damage from water pollution is often reversible.

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Water pollution is all about quantities: how much of a polluting substance is released and how big a volume of water it is released into. A small quantity of a toxic chemical may have little impact if it is spilled into the ocean from a ship. But the same amount of the same chemical can have a much bigger impact pumped into a lake or river, where there is less clean water to disperse it.

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Warning Water purification processes rely heavily on the use of chlorine to eliminate harmful bacteria and disease-causing organisms. And while the effects of chlorinated water don't pose an immediate threat, long term use has been linked to cancers of the liver, bladder and colon according to Francis T. Mayo, director of the Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory. Reports from The National Cancer Institute show the risk of getting cancer is 93 percent higher for people who drink chlorinated water. Chlorination is also identified as a cause of heart disease, high blood pressure, allergies and atherosclerosis. Researchers attribute these causes to byproducts that form when chlorine reacts with organic compounds in the water. These resulting byproducts are organic mutations that contain carcinogenic materials.

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