Air Pollution.ppt-pavani

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Pollution :

Pollution

Environmental pollution can be defined as an undesirable change in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the environment:

Environmental pollution can be defined as an undesirable change in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the environment

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Pollution

Pollution :

Pollution

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Air pollution is the introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulates, or biological materials that cause discomfort, disease, or death to humans, damage other living organisms such as food crops, or damage the natural environment

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Los Angeles, California, City of Angels is nicknamed Smog City. Karachi, Pakistan; New Delhi, India; Beijing, China; Lima, Peru; and Cairo, Egypt.

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Hongkong Beijing Mexico

Physical Forms of an Air Pollutant:

Physical Forms of an Air Pollutant Gaseous form Sulfur dioxide Ozone Hydro-carbon vapors Particulate form Smoke Dust Fly ash Mists

Common Air Pollutants:

Common Air Pollutants → Indoor Radon Combustion by-products CO, CO 2 , SO 2 , Hydrocarbons, NOx Particulates, Polyaromatic hydrocarbons Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Volatile organic compounds Asbestos Formaldehyde Biological contaminants Pesticides → Outdoor SO 2 CO, CO 2 Oxides of Nitrogen Ozone Total Suspended particles Lead Particulates Volatile organic compounds Toxic Air pollutants The air pollution problem is encountered in both indoor as well as outdoor.

Six primary or “criteria” air pollutants:

Six primary or “criteria” air pollutants Carbon monoxide (CO) Ozone (O 3 ) Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) Sulfur oxides (SO x ) PM 2.5 and PM 10 Lead (Pb)

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According to W.H.O, an increase in any of the constituents of the atmosphere which is harmful to the living beings and their environment, is known as air pollution

OAP:

OAP In the year 2004, outdoor air pollution in urban areas was responsible for almost 1.2 million deaths (2% of all deaths)

IAP:

IAP In the year 2004, indoor air pollution from solid fuel use was responsible for almost 2 million deaths (3% of all deaths) The second largest environmental contributor to ill-health In low- and middle-income countries, 3.9% of all deaths are due to indoor air pollution.

Some Important Indoor Air Pollutants:

Some Important Indoor Air Pollutants

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Cancer causing radioactive gas Any home may have a radon problem

Source Classification:

Source Classification Sources may be classified as: (A) Primary Secondary (B) Combustion Non-combustion (C) Stationary Mobile (D) Point: These sources include facilities that emit sufficient amounts of pollutants worth listing Area: all other point sources that individually emit a small amount of pollutants are considered as area sources.

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Burning of Fire Wood Chimneys Automobiles

What is Particulate Matter?:

What is Particulate Matter? Particulate matter (PM) describes a wide variety of airborne material. PM pollution consists of materials (including dust, smoke, and soot ), that are directly emitted into the air or result from the transformation of gaseous pollutants. Particles come from natural sources (e.g., volcanic eruptions) and human activities such as burning fossil fuels, incinerating wastes, and smelting metals.

Sources of PM:

Sources of PM Mobile Sources (vehicles) VOCs, NO 2 , PM Stationary Sources (power plants, factories) NO 2 , SO 2 , PM Area Sources (drycleaners, gas stations) VOCs Natural Sources (forest fires, volcanoes) PM

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The main causes of death are tiny particles which enter the lungs and bloodstream, leading to enhanced pulmonary and coronary problems. Anything over 20 micrograms per cubic meter is considered dangerous by the WHO. New York City averages 21 micrograms per cubic meter, while Los Angeles averages 25 micrograms. But around the world some cities are far more dangerous than notoriously smoggy LA.

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#1 Ahvaz, Iran 372 micrograms per cubic meter #2: Ulaan Baatar , Mongolia 279 micrograms per cubic mete #3: Sanandaj , Iran 254 micrograms per cubic meter #4: Ludhiana, India and Quetta, Pakistan 251 micrograms per cubic mete #5: Kermanshah, Iran 229 micrograms per cubic meter

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#6: Peshawar, Pakistan 219 micrograms per cubic meter #7: Gaborone, Botswana 216 micrograms per cubic meter #8: Yasouj , Iran 215 micrograms per cubic meter #9: Kanpur, India 209 micrograms per cubic meter #10: Lahore, Pakistan 200 micrograms per cubic meter

Secondary pollutants:

Secondary pollutants Smog Photochemical smog/ozone PAN (peroxy acetyl nitrate)

Smog :

Smog Smoke + fog

Ozone :

Ozone Tropospheric ozone – what we breathe –major pollutant

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Photochemical smog/ ozone a noxious mixture of gases and particles, is produced when strong sunlight triggers photochemical reactions in the atmosphere.

PAN:

PAN Smog is caused by the interaction of some hydrocarbons and oxidants under the influence of sunlight giving rise to dangerous peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN).

Smoggy cities:

Smoggy cities

Other air pollutants - HAPs:

Hazardous air pollutants Not included in the 6 criteria air pollutants Include Organic chemicals (acrolein, benzene) Minerals (asbestos) PAH (benzo[a]pyrene) Metals (Hg, Be) Pesticides (carbaryl, parathion) Some are carcinogenic Other air pollutants - HAPs

Volatile Organic Pollutants (VOCs):

Volatile Organic Pollutants (VOCs) Sources: Petroleum emissions, fuel combustion, incineration, biomass burning Account for ~14% of all air pollution Important factor of indoor air pollution Types Aliphatic Alcohols (ethylene glycol, MTBE) Aldehydes (formaldehyde) Aromatic (benzene, toluene, xylene) Halogenated (TCE, PERC, Methylene Chloride) Polycyclic (PAHs) Other (Carbon disulfide)

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The analysis or measurement of pollution is termed as Environmental Pollution Analysis (EPA)

Air quality health index:

Air quality health index

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Effects of Air Pollution

Health effects of pollutants:

Health effects of pollutants Eye irritation Respiratory tract infection Exacerbation of asthma Bronchial irritation Heart disease Possibly cancer (controversial) (diesel, TiO 2 , talc, carbon black, toner black) Elevated hospital admissions, mortality - starting at 10ug/m 3

What Adverse Health Effects Have Been Linked to PM?:

Premature death Lung cancer Exacerbation of COPD Development of chronic lung disease Heart attacks Hospital admissions for heart and lung disease Pre-term birth Low birth weight What Adverse Health Effects Have Been Linked to PM?

Health effects due to Indoor Air Pollutants:

Health effects due to Indoor Air Pollutants Headaches Nausea Respiratory infections Asthma Legionnaire’s disease Lung cancer

Indoor pollutants:

Indoor pollutants Non-specific symptoms Household vs work space Sick building syndrome (20% exposed) Cigarette smoke, combustion products Organic offgasing (glue, fabrics, furnishings) Biological agents (infections, allergens) Flaws in HVAC systems Additional factors (stress, fatigue, diet, alcohol)

What is Sick Building Syndrome (SBS)?:

What is Sick Building Syndrome (SBS)? Condition of a building in which more than 20% of the occupants are suffering from adverse health effects but with no clinically diagnosable disease present It is a condition of a building ; not of the occupants Poor indoor air quality sensory irritation of the eyes, nose, throat; neurotoxic or general health problems; skin irritation; nonspecific hypersensitivity reactions; and odor and taste sensations It takes place due to long term exposure to low levels of contaminants

Inversions:

Inversions An inversion is an extremely stable layer of the atmosphere that forms over areas. Temperature inversions trap pollutants close to the ground. These inversions involve layers of hot air sitting above cooler air near ground level. When particles accumulate in the air layer, they are unable to rise into the atmosphere where winds will disperse them.

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Inversion

Major Episodes of Severe Air Pollution due to Inversions :

1930: Meuse River Valley, Belgium An inversion led to a high concentration of pollutants during a period of cold, damp weather Main sources: zinc smelter, sulfuric acid factory, glass manufacturers 60 deaths recorded 1948: Donora, Pennsylvania Similar inversion to Meuse River Valley Main sources: iron and steel factories, zinc smelting, and an acid plant 20 deaths observed 1952: London Killer fog (right) Primary source: domestic coal burning 4,500 excess deaths recorded during week- long period in December The Great London Smog (1952) Major Episodes of Severe Air Pollution due to Inversions

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Acid rain is rain consisting of water droplets that are unusually acidic because of atmospheric pollution - most notably the excessive amounts of sulfur and nitrogen released by cars and industrial processes. Acid rain

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Acid rain is also called acid deposition / acidic precipitation Acidic deposition occurs in two ways: wet and dry. Wet deposition is any form of precipitation that removes acids from the atmosphere and deposits them on the Earth’s surface. Dry deposition polluting particles and gases stick to the ground via dust and smoke in the absence of precipitation.

Acid Rain: Its effect on a tree:

Acid Rain: Its effect on a tree

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Ecosystem damage caused by sulfur dioxide emissions and acid rain. (near Sudbury Ontario) 55

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56 Acid Rainfall affects: Plants - directly (weakens or kills plants) Soils - directly (leaching of base cations eg, Ca & Mg) Plants - indirectly (lower soil nutrients, insects attack weak trees) Frazier fir stand on Mount Mitchell in the Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina

Effects on Climate :

Effects on Climate

Global warming:

Global warming Global warming is the rise in the average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans since the late 19th century and its projected continuation. the Industrial Revolution has increased the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, leading to increased radiation.

The Greenhouse Effect:

The Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect is a process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases, and is re-radiated in all directions. Since part of this re-radiation is back towards the surface and the lower atmosphere, it results in an elevation of the average surface temperature above what it would be in the absence of the gases.

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Global insulators By their percentage contribution to the greenhouse effect on Earth the four major gases are: Water vapor, 36–70% Carbon dioxide, 9–26% Methane, 4–9% Ozone, 3–7% The major non-gas contributor to the Earth's greenhouse effect, clouds, also absorb and emit infrared radiation and thus have an effect on radiative properties of the atmosphere.

Air Pollution Damage to Trees :

Air Pollution Damage to Trees

Ozone depletion:

Ozone depletion CFCS The use of these gases started in 1930s in refrigerators, air conditioners, solvents and for cleaning of computers. These gases do not burn and are not poisonous.

Effects of ozone depletion:

Effects of ozone depletion Increased UV Biological effects Basal and squamous cell carcinomas Malignant melanoma Cortical cataracts Increased tropospheric ozone Increased production of vitamin D Effects on non-human animals Effects on crops

Control of Air Pollution.:

Control of Air Pollution. Air pollution can be controlled by a thorough understanding of its causes. Establishment of industries away from the towns and cities. Increasing the length of the chymneys in industries. Growing more plants and trees. Use of efficient engines in automobiles. Use of smokeless choola. Use of petrol without lead (Unleaded petrol)

Air Pollution Control:

Air Pollution Control “Dilution is the solution to pollution” Particulate removal - air filters Sulfur removal - scrubbers Nitrogen oxide reduction - catalytic converters Hydrocarbon controls - afterburners 70

Strategies to improve Indoor Air Quality:

Strategies to improve Indoor Air Quality Pollutant Source Control Increased Ventilation Dehumidification Use of Air Cleaners Dust collectors Filters

.Vanamohotsava should be organized in the right spirit :

. Vanamohotsava should be organized in the right spirit . The UNO must stop nuclear tests

Controlling Air Pollution through Regulations:

Controlling Air Pollution through Regulations Economic activity, population growth, meteorological conditions, and regulatory efforts to control emissions, all influence the trends in air pollution. The Clean Air Act of 1970 mandated the setting of standards for four of the primary pollutants— particulates, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and Nitrogen as well as the secondary pollutant ozone.

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