Category: Education

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"People are not your most important asset. The right people are."



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Purpose is to hire the person(s) best able to meet the needs of the organization Tied Back to Strategy

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Personnel selection is the process of differentiating the applicants in order to identify those with a greater likelihood of success in a job Selection is concerned with picking the right candidate from the pool of applicants for offering the job Selection is generally done by the HR department often in consultation with the line-manager or concerned department

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Importance of Selection Improves the performance Cost of wrong selection is much greater Demotivation Cost is high

Steps involved in selection : 

Steps involved in selection It is a long process commencing with a preliminary interview of the applicants and ending with the contract of employment

Preliminary interview : 

Preliminary interview Applications are scrutinized Preliminary interview Courtesy interview Good public relations exercise Appraising the applicant’s apparent qualities-appearance, speech, mannerism and attitudes About 50% might be eliminated

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Selection tests: Depend on the job and the company Written, oral and practical Designed for level of position being filled To determine the applicant’s ability, aptitude and personality Professional knowledge and some measure of applicants managerial potential can be tested

TAT : 


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Cognitive Abilities Tests: Paper and pencil or individualized assessment measures of an individual's general mental ability or intelligence. These tests may be categorized as: General Intelligence Tests Aptitude Tests Mechanical Aptitude Clerical Aptitude Spatial Aptitude

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How many squares are there in a chessboard?

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You have to measure exactly 4 l of water, you have only 3 l and 5 l bottles. How do you do it?

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Advantages: highly reliable verbal reasoning and numerical tests have shown high validity for a wide range of jobs the validity rises with increasing complexity of the job combinations of aptitude tests have higher validities than individual tests alone may be administered in group settings where many applicants can be tested at the same time scoring of the tests may be completed by computer scanning equipment lower cost than personality tests

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Disadvantages: non-minorities typically score one standard deviation above minorities which may result in adverse impact depending on how the scores are used in the selection process differences between males and females in abilities (e.g., knowledge of mathematics) may negatively impact the scores of female applicants

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Personality Tests: A selection procedure measure the personality characteristics of applicants that are related to future job performance. Personality tests typically measure one or more of five personality dimensions: extroversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience.

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Advantages can reveal more information about applicant's abilities and interests can identify interpersonal traits that may be needed for certain jobs

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Disadvantages difficult to measure personality traits that may not be well defined applicant's training and experience may have greater impact on job performance than applicant's personality responses by applicant may be altered by applicant's desire to respond in a way they feel would result in their selection lack of diversity if all selected applicants have same personality traits cost may be prohibitive for both the test and interpretation of results lack of evidence to support validity of use of personality tests

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Reference and background checks:- Reference provide the applicant’s honesty, willingness to work, quality of his work and personality or discrepancy problems Reference can be written or oral

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Employment interview

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Employment interview:- In-depth conversation conducted to evaluate the applicant’s acceptability Two-way communication adapted to select unskilled, skilled, managerial and professional personnel Excellent selection device Final interview is conducted to check any unanswered questions and to clarify the potential problem area Three objectives Helps in obtaining additional information from the applicant Facilitates in giving general information Helps in building the company’s image among applicants -One of the pitfalls of interview is the halo (positive) or horn (negative) effect -The use of two or three interviewers minimizes the halo or horn effects

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Competency/criteria based interviews - These are structured to reflect the competencies or qualities that an employer is seeking for a particular job, which will usually have been detailed in the job specification or advert. The interviewer is looking for evidence of your skills and may ask such things as: ‘Give an example of a time you worked as part of a team to achieve a common goal.’ The organisation determines the selection criteria based on the roles they are recruiting for and then, in an interview, examines whether or not you have evidence of possessing these. Technical interviews - If you have applied for a job or course that requires technical knowledge, it is likely that you will be asked technical questions or have a separate technical interview. Questions may focus on your final year project or on real or hypothetical technical problems. You should be prepared to prove yourself, but also to admit to what you do not know and stress that you are keen to learn. Do not worry if you do not know the exact answer - interviewers are interested in your thought process and logic.

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Academic interviews - These are used for further study or research positions. Questions are likely to centre on your academic history to date. Structured interviews - The interviewer has a set list of questions, and asks all the candidates the same questions. Formal/informal interviews - Some interviews may be very formal, while others will feel more like an informal chat about you and your interests. Be aware that you are still being assessed, however informal the discussion may seem. Portfolio based interviews - If the role is within the arts, media or communications industries, you may be asked to bring a portfolio of your work to the interview, and to have an in-depth discussion about the pieces you have chosen to include. Scenario/case study interviews - These range from straightforward scenario questions (e.g. ‘What would you do in a situation where…?’) to the detailed analysis of a hypothetical business problem. You will be evaluated on your analysis of the problem, how you identify the key issues, how you pursue a particular line of thinking and whether you can develop and present an appropriate framework for organising your thoughts.

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Specific types of interview Face-to-face interviews - This may be one-to-one between you and the interviewer, or you may sometimes find that there are two interviewers, such as a functional specialist and a member of the resourcing or HR team. Panel interviews - These involve several people sitting as a panel, usually with a chairperson to coordinate the questions. This type of interview is popular in the public sector. Telephone interviews - Telephone interviews are increasingly used by companies as an integral part of the recruitment process, often at an early stage of selection. If you are offered a telephone interview, the most important fact to remember is that the employer wants to find out the same information as they would face-to-face, so your preparation needs to be just as thorough. Group interviews - Several candidates are present and will be asked questions in turn. A group discussion may be encouraged and you may be invited to put questions to the other candidates. Sequential interviews - These are several interviews in turn, with a different interviewer each time. Usually, each interviewer asks questions to test different sets of competencies. However, you may find yourself answering the same questions over and over. If this does happen, make sure you answer each one as fully as the time before.

The Effectiveness of Interviews : 

The Effectiveness of Interviews Prior knowledge about an applicant Attitude of the interviewer The order of the interview Negative information The first five minutes The content of the interview The validity of the interview Structured versus unstructured interviews

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Selection decision:- Most critical step Physical examination:- Any infectious diseases Physically fit Job offer: Letter of appointment Given reasonable time for reporting Contract of employment:- Execute a contract of employment or a bond To restrain job hoppers, to protect knowledge and information that might be vital to a company It also prevents the competitors from poaching high-valued employees Almost impossible to enforce it Rejected applicants should be informed

Orientation and placement : 

Orientation and placement Planned introduction of employees to their jobs, their co workers and the organization Conveys information, General information about the daily work routine Review of organisations history Policies, work rules, employee benefits Location of departments, lines of responsibility and authority and restriction of activities Handling of records, reports, and special controls of certain depts and for certain products

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HR representative Supervisor Organizational issues, employee benefits, introductions Special job location and duties Special anxiety relation seminars Placement Questionnaire for evaluating the programme/ follow up interviews Most neglected aspect of personnel administration

Placement : 

Placement Allocation of people to jobs Job description and job specifications are the important guiding principles Matching of people and job


TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Training and development may be defined as an attempt to improve current or future performance of employees through learning, usually by changing the employee’s attitude or increasing his/her skills and knowledge Imparting of specific skills, abilities and knowledge to an employee Development refers to those learning opportunities designed to help employees grow -acquiring skills for future work Learning experience that seeks relatively permanent change Training tends to be done for current job

Employee Training : 

Employee Training What deficiencies, if any, does job holder have in terms of skills, knowledge, abilities, and behaviours? What behaviours are necessary? Is there a need for training? What are the strategic goals of the organization? What tasks must be completed to achieve goals?

Importance of Training and Development : 

Importance of Training and Development BENEFITS:- Employees become efficient Employees become versatile in operations Flexibility Accidents, scrap and damage to machinery can be avoided or minimized Training is an investment in HR with a promise of better returns in future

Training and Development Program-Steps : 

Training and Development Program-Steps Relevance: what, why and how? Demonstration Practice Feedback METHODS:- On-the job Off-the job

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On-the job training: Majority Refers to methods that are applied at the workplace, while the employee is actually working Job-instruction training, apprentice training, internships, assistantships and job rotation are a few methods of on-the job training Advantages: Most effective method Least expensive Highly motivated to learn Free from the artificial classroom situation Disadvantages: May lack expertise Not systematically organized Produces damaged products

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Off-the job training: Commonly used away from workplace Lectures, films, audiocassettes, videotapes, case studies, conferences, discussions, role play, laboratory training are the off-the job methods Advantages: Less expensive Experienced personnel for further improvement and growth Disadvantages: Hands-on experience cannot be imparted

Lecture:- Provides in-depth knowledge of the subject Made effective by use of audio-visual aids such as television, slides, overhead projector, videotapes and films Programmed instruction: Information is provided to the trainee in blocks, either in a book-from or through a machine Must answer questions on that material Feedback or correct answer is provided after each response Self learning but cost is high Simulation:- Equipment or technique that duplicates the actual conditions encountered on the job as nearly as possible Simulations are case studies, role play and vestibule training

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Training Program:- Planned based on the level of learning, education and skills of trainees Implementation of the training program:- By deciding the location, infrastructure facilities, resource personnel, actual conducting and monitoring of the program

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Evaluation of training program:- Sending a questionnaire to the trainees after completion of program and collecting opinions Program is verified for accomplishing the objectives Correcting of deficiencies Changing in the training capabilities Determining of the cost effectiveness

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