Scheduling

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Scheduling:

Scheduling By Pavani Asst Prof GRCP, Hyd

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Similar to railway time table When and in what sequence the work will be done Process of decision taking to start the work for production Time phase of loading – involves the time frame of work for production Shows which machine is doing what and when

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Detailed schedules in terms of usage of manpower, material and equipment Statement of target dates for all operations in hand and reveals their starting and finishing dates One of the most detailed tasks Positive commitment to perform activities with in the required time

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Deals with orders and machines Finalizes the planning phase of production planning and control system Importance: Optimizes the production and inventory costs by properly sequencing the orders and time phasing Monitoring production activities Checking the progress of production Decision making during the production cycle

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Not an exact process. The schedule tells you when each activity should be done, what has already been completed, and the sequence in which things need to be finished. It's part estimation , part prediction, and part 'educated guessing. Reviewed and revised Transforms the task from vision to a time based plan

Factors affecting:

Factors affecting External factors: Customer’s demand Customer’s delivery dates Stock of goods already lying with the dealers and retailers Internal factors: Stock of finished goods with the firm Time interval to process finished goods from raw material Availability of equipment and machinery; their total capacity and specifications Availability of materials; their quantity and specifications Availability of manpower (number, type and kind of skills) Additional manufacturing facilities if required Feasibility of economic production runs

Production scheduling procedure:

Production scheduling procedure Starts with master schedule Detailed action plan needed to fulfill the first ‘x’ number of months of the production plan Last phase of production planning Shows the dates on which delivery is promised to the customers Computers Master schedule is prepared and subsequently detailed schedules are prepared for each step in the production Dispatched to the production department

Master production schedule:

Master production schedule Contains information on the orders of all products Does not permit day to day planning Necessary to provide certain percentage of total weekly capacity for rush orders

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Small organizations- day to day scheduling Large scale organizations – weekly production schedules- economical Weekly breakdown of the production requirements Considers 1. equipment downtime for maintenance and repair 2. shortages and defects in material 3. absenteeism 4. cancellation and rush orders Depicts the running total of the production requirements and shows the work ahead- yet to be completed Basis for all subsequent scheduling techniques

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Advantages : Simple and easy to understand Can be kept running Involves less cost to make it and maintain Can be maintained by non technical staff Certain percentage of total weekly capacity can be allocated for rush orders Disadvantages : Provides only overall picture Does not give detailed information

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Applications : In big firms, for the purpose of loading the entire plant In R&D organizations For the overall planning in foundries, computer centres, repair shops etc. Followed by detailed scheduling Visual aids and techniques -> conventional charts, commercially available boards

Techniques:

Techniques Depends on type of production, type and frequency of tasks, actual performance and their comparison Perpetual schedule Order schedule Loading by schedule period Commercial devices grantt charts – a bar chart – bar represents time of activity

Perpetual schedule :

Perpetual schedule Provides gross picture about the schedule Does not indicate the time of work taking place 2 steps Preparation of load analysis sheet from the orders on hand Total load sheet against each section is added up n o. of weeks load against each department calculated and plotted in a grantt chart Additional information can be indicated by dotted line

Order schedule :

Order schedule Most elaborate technique Chart- time on horizontal axis, particular facility on vertical axis Information required is, reg no of parts to be manufactured, name of the machines, their set up times, total production time and the date of completion of the order Planned by working backwards Adv: very detailed, earliest possible completion dates can be met Disadv : very costly Requires accurate (production) time standards and good communication system Difficult to maintain effectively if there are many active orders

Loading by schedule period :

Loading by schedule period Given task is broken into different unit operations Grantt type of chart is used for scheduling Rows mark different facilities Column denotes time period Bars show the work ahead Longer in-process time More flexible as an operation

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TP- Time Period

Commercial devices :

Commercial devices Produc-Trol board Sched-U-graph Board master Magnetic boards Roll charts Peg boards with sliding mechanisms to indicate the scheduling of production

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Board masters

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Magnetic boards

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Roll charts Peg boards

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Milestone Chart: portrayed on a project time line It displays only the key project milestones Each milestone is represented by a diamond or triangle Full-Scale and Complex projects

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Task List: Simplest of the schedule format tools It can be the most powerful and useful tool with extended members of the project team A Task List is just an action item list for the team member that contains all of the tasks that individual is responsible for completing This provides a focus for the individual as to what they need to do This technique usually is the best method for communicating and tracking scheduling of the work from those extended team members

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Network Diagram: A flowchart of the project tasks A foundational technique for several analytical techniques The network is created by determining predecessor and successor relationships and connecting the tasks based upon those relationships When task durations are uncertain, the Network Diagram is often a better technique to use than the Gantt (bar) chart

Techniques for Analyzing Project Schedules:

Techniques for Analyzing Project Schedules Critical Path: To determine what the shortest time is to complete the project, or a phase of the project Method analyzes every possible sequence of tasks – based upon the network diagram – to determine which sequence is the longest- called critical path

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Schedule Compression – This tool helps shorten the total duration of a project by decreasing the time allotted for certain activities. It's done so that you can meet time constraints, and still keep the original scope of the project. You can use two methods here: Crashing – This is where you assign more resources to an activity, thus decreasing the time it takes to complete it. This is based on the assumption that the time you save will offset the added resource costs. Fast-Tracking – This involves rearranging activities to allow more parallel work. This means that things you would normally do one after another are now done at the same time. However, do bear in mind that this approach increases the risk that you'll miss things, or fail to address changes.

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Dialogue and Collaboration is the key to creating a reliable schedule! “Our goals can only be reached through a vehicle of a plan, in which we must fervently believe, and upon which we must vigorously act. There is no other route to success.”

Dispatching of records:

Dispatching of records Process of actually ordering work to be done in the production Planning dept dispatches the records An order Instructions for starting the work Planning dept -> production dept Dispatching section is familiar with the production capacity of each equipment Keeps an eye over the progress of orders Key function between production and sales

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Procedure : dispatching a number of different departments for initiating the operations Stores Tool stores Job order Line ticket Inspection order Move order Handled by manager of production planning and inventory

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