Planetary Vacuums, Atmospheres, & Life

Views:
 
     
 

Presentation Description

While does our earth have a 21% Oxygen Atmosphere, when our neighboring planets, Mars, and Venus, have mostly Carbon Dioxide? Could our earth have a runaway greenhouse effect like Venus? Is there life on the billions of exo-planets?

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Slide1:

PLANETARY VACUUMS, ATOMOSPHERES, & LIFE Paul H. Carr www.MirrorOfNature.org

Slide2:

VACUUM ON THE MOON 3 X 10 -15 BAR No greenhouse gas atmosphere Diurnal Variations: Day 123 C (396 Kelvin) Night -233 C (40 Kelvin) ON EARTH Greenhouse gasses, blanketing the earth , give much smaller variations. On cloudless nights, non- condensing and increasing CO2 (100 year life) and other greenhouse gases keep us warmer than on the moon.

Slide3:

Increasing CO2 gas density: 1. raises temperature of earth’s surface. 2. reduces temperature of the stratosphere. 3

Slide4:

-Outgoing spectral radiance at the top of Earth's atmosphere showing the absorption at specific frequencies and the principle absorber CO2 at 16 microns . -The red curve shows the flux from a classic "blackbody" at 294°K (≈31°C≈69.5°F).  Schmidt, G.A.,  2010 J. Geophys. Res. , 115 , D20106, doi:10.1029/2010JD014287. 4

Slide5:

Vacuum of 1 Bar 3 x 10 -15 10 -14 0.01 92 Gravity helps hold planet’s atmosphere. Venus had a CO2 runaway greenhouse effect.

Slide6:

PLANETARY TEMPERATURES, VACUUMS, & ATMOSPHERES. Science ,  330 , 356-359, 15 October 2010 Parameter Mars Earth Venus Mercury Temp. (K) 223 Day 300 Day 730 Day 700 Day 213 Night 280 Night 730 Night 100 Night Pressure (bar) 0.01 1 92 10 -14 Ultraviolet observations of VENUS’ cloud cover--- - Venus surface temp hotter than Mercury’s 700 K . 730K (457 C) is hot enough to melt lead. ATMOSPHERES Venus: 96 % CO2, 3% Nitrogen . Earth: 21% Oxygen , 78% Nitrogen, 0.04% CO 2 Mars: 95% CO2, 3% Nitrogen

Slide7:

Why does our earth have 21 % oxygen, 0.04% CO2? -Neighboring Venus & Mars are mostly CO2

Slide8:

Figure from “ Cosmic Dawn ” by Eric Chaisson Photosynthesis of blue-green algae converted CO 2 to Oxygen Carbon Dioxide, CO 2 Prokaryote Cells Eukaryote Cells 7

Slide9:

Cambrian Explosion of multicellular life made possible by increasing oxygen levels. - CO 2 was converted to O 2 by photosynthesis. - Enabling animals that get energy by oxidizing sugars .

Slide10:

Might our earth undergo a runaway greenhouse effect similar to Venus? Fossil fuel burning is increasing CO2 concentrations. Temperature increases correlate with CO2.

Slide11:

CORRELTAION BETWEEN TEMP AND CO2 INCREASE From the Greenhous Effect . 11

Slide12:

At present rate of 2.5 ppm rise per year, humans are increasing CO2 at a  rate 300 times faster than the recovery from the ice age 18,000 -10,000 years ago. CO2 CONCENTRATIONS, HIGHEST (33%) IN 800,000 YRS, COULD REACH ~1000 PPM BY 21OO. Ice Age 12

Slide13:

Our present level of 400 ppm could reach ~ 1000 ppm by 2100. Arctic became ice-free 8 M years ago when CO2 = 300 to 450 ppm. Antarctic melted ~ 40 M years ago, CO2 ~ 700 ppm - Earth was ice-free, sea levels 100s meters (~300 ft ) higher. Dinosaur Extinction 65M Yr. BP Figure from Dr. James Hansen, NASA GISS 13 THERMAL MAXIMUM

Slide14:

Photograph by Ira Block When the Ocean Went Dark National Geographic October 2011, vol 220. no 4. pg. 90 http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2011/10/hothouse-earth/kunzig-text Paleoceanographer James Zachos holds a replica of a sediment core that shows an abrupt change in the Atlantic Ocean 51 -55 million years ago, at the onset of the Paleocene- Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). White plankton shells vanished from the seafloor mud, shifting its color from white to red. As planet-warming CO2 and CH4 clathrates surged into the atmosphere , Zachos says, it also seeped into the seas, acidifying the water and dissolving the shells.

Slide15:

PROPOSED DEBATE ON LIFE on the EXO-PLANETS Between Cosmologist, CARL SAGAN (1934 – 1996) Believed many kinds of intelligent life could form, but that the lack of evidence suggests that intelligent beings destroy themselves rather quickly . And Evolutionary biologist, ERNST MAYR (1904 - 2005, Bedford, MA) Single cell life in the universe is very likely, but intelligent life very rare.

Slide16:

PLANETARY VACUUMS, ATOMOSPHERES, & LIFE CONCLUSIONS: We must stop CO2 fossil fuel emissions by: -Conservation, efficiency increases, carbon emission surcharge. - Energy from solar, wind, nuclear. The emergence of plant photosynthesis produced the 21% oxygen that enables our life.

authorStream Live Help