OSCILLATIONS from ARCTIC WARMING: Record Cold & Hot, Rising Seas

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WEATHER EXTREMES ARE INCREASING. Record-Cold and Snowfall in New England during 2015 winter. -Record high sea temps, 11.5 C, put more water vapor (snow) in the atmosphere. Record-Hot West Sees First 100-Degree Temperature of 2015. - CA 4 yr. drought longest in history. Wet areas are getting wetter: floods, record snowfall Dry areas, drier: droughts, wildfires.

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OSCILLATIONS from ARCTIC WARMING: Record Cold & Hot , RISING SEAS Paul H. Carr www.MirrorOfNature.org 1

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WEATHER EXTREMES ARE INCREASING . Record-Cold and S nowfall in New England during 2015 winter. -Record high s ea temps, 11.5 C, put more water vapor (snow) in the atmosphere . Record -Hot West Sees First 100-Degree Temperature of 2015. - CA 4 yr. drought longest in history. 2

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A darker Arctic is boosting global warming From1979 to 2011, less reflecting ice, more absorbing water made North Pole warm twice as fast as the rest of the earth. http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/02/13/1318201111.abstract Proc. National Academy of Science, Feb 18, 2014. ARCTIC MELTING IN THE LAST 32 YEARS SATELITE PHOTO 23 3

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PAST COLD ARCTIC PRESENT WARMER ARCTIC Higher pressure sub-tropic constrained the low-pressure arctic Lower pressure difference allows waves of arctic air to invade the South: Warmer & Colder Winters. Cold Air Oscillates South from the Arctic The Arctic is warming twice as fast as the rest of our earth. Therefore the temperature and the accompanying pressure difference that used to keep arctic air up North comes South, bringing cold air to Atlanta & New Orleans. A Wacky Jet Steam Is Making Our Weather Severe , Scientific American, Nov 18, 2014 24 4

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The jet stream that circles Earth's north pole travels west to east. But when the jet stream interacts with a Rossby wave, as shown here, the winds can wander far north and south, bringing frigid air to normally mild southern states. http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2014/02/16/277911739/warming-arctic-may-be-causing-jet-stream-to-lose-its-way 6

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Arctic Winter Ice Reached New Low Feb 28, 2015 7

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8 ANOMALOUSLY HIGH SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES OF +5 deg. C PUT MORE WATER VAPOR IN THE ATMOSPHERE. STORMS CARRY IT OVER THE COLD LAND TO MAKE MORE SNOW.

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Blue: Sea level change from tide-gauge data (Church J.A. and White N.J., Geophys . Res. Lett . 2006; 33: L01602) Red: Univ. Colorado sea level analyses in satellite era (http:// www.columbia.edu /~mhs119/ SeaLevel /) . Present Sea level rise rate is 4 times that of 1900. 1 ft . /100 years. 7.5 in./100 years 3 in. /100 years 9

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The rate of sea level increase correlates with the blue line of CO2 increase. Sea level rise is a proxy for global temperature, due to thermal expansion (50%) & the melting of ice (50%) Sea level rise rate has increased 4 times: 3.1 mm/year ( 1 ft /100 yr. ) now from 0.8 mm/year in 1900 10

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1880-1980: 0.3 C TEMP INCREASE 1980- 2012: 0.55 TEMPERATURE INCREASE (Hansen, J., Ruedy , R., Sato, M., and Lo, K., 2010: Global surface temperature change, Rev. Geophys . 48 , RG4004.) LONG TERM CLIMATE AVERAGES REMOVE THE SHORT TERM WEATHER FLUCTUATIONS IS THE “FAUX PAUSE” STATISTICALLY AND CLIMACTICALLY SIGNIFICANT? OUR PRESENT DECADE HAS BEEN THE WARMEST IN CENTRURIES 11

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Oceanic heat sink.Evolution of the ocean heat content (OHC) at several depths of the global ocean between 1980 and 2011. A Clement, and P DiNezio Science 2014;343:976-978 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/343/6174/976.full Published by AAAS 12

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Most recent prediction for 2100: 2 to 6 feet 13

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Sea levels predicted to rise 2-4 feet by 2100 will flood Back Bay. 14

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CONCLUSIONS 1 . WEATHER EXTREMES ARE INCREASING - Wet areas are becoming wetter: Floods, Snow Atmosphere holds more water at higher temps. -Dry areas, drier: Droughts, Wildfires 2. RISING SEA LEVELS ARE A BETTER MEASURE OF GLOBAL WARMING THAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE. Learn more at www.MirrorOfNature.org 15

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Source: US National Climate Assessment 16

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Melting Greenland Melting Antarctica Mountain Glaciers Thermal Expansion Global temperatures have risen since 1960, but rate of sea level rise has be greater. EARTH WILL CROSS DANGER TRESHOLD BY 2036 M. Mann. Scientific American, vol 310, April 2014 Faux Pause 17

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