Rise of Russia ppoint

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The Byzantine Heritage:

The Byzantine Heritage Although Byzantine power had faded long before the fall of Constantinople, the empire had stood for centuries as the enduring symbol of ancient Rome. Throughout the Middle Ages, Byzantine influence traveled across Europe.

What do you see here that makes it clear this is the city of Constantinople?:

What do you see here that makes it clear this is the city of Constantinople?

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What was the legacy of the Byzantines? For 1,000 years, the Byzantines built on the culture of Alexander the Great’s Hellenistic world. Byzantine civilization blended Christian beliefs with Greek science, philosophy, arts and literature. The Byzantines also extended Roman achievements in engineering and law. The university of Constantinople 5th-15th cent

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Byzantine artists made unique contributions, especially in religious art and architecture. Icons, designed to encourage prayer, gave Christians a sense of personal contact with God. Byzantine icon of Jesus and his disciples at the Last Supper

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Byzantine mosaics brought scenes from the Bible to glowing life. They also left an image of the greatness of the emperors.

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T he Romans had used tiny stones to create mosaics, but the Byzantine artists used small pieces of colored glass, set into the mortar of the church walls at different angles to catch the light.

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In architecture, Byzantine palaces and churches blended Greek, Roman, and Middle Eastern styles.

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Byzantine and Islamic architecture share a common trend: that is, the use of the dome. One example is the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, which was Islamic architecture, but illustrates the influence Byzantines made as the dome style passed on to the Muslims.

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Most Byzantine architecture was to glorify the Orthodox Church, or the Emperor. The best example is the Hagia Sophia, completed in 537. The Hagia Sophia (which means Holy Wisdom) was a Christian church at Constantinople. As a massive and ornamental church, the building represents the glory of the Byzantine Empire.

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To the north of Constantinople lay the Black Sea and what we would now call Russia. From here came products such as iron, timber and animal furs.

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Russia lies on the vast Eurasian plain that reaches from Europe to the borders of China. Although mapmakers use the Ural Mountains to mark the boundary between Europe and Asia, these ancient mountains were long ago worn away to wooded hills. They posed no obstacle to migration.

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Three broad zones with different climates and resources helped shape early Russian life. The northern forest supplied lumber for building and fuel. Fur-bearing animals attracted hunters, but poor soil and cold, snowy climate hindered farming.

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Farther south, a brand of fertile land attracted early farmers. This region —modern day Ukraine—was home to Russia’s first civilization .

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A third region, the southern steppe is an open, treeless grassland. It offered splendid pasture for the herds and the horses of nomadic peoples. With no natural barriers, the steppe was great highway, along which streams of nomads migrated from Asia to Europe.

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Russia’s network of rivers provided transportation for both people and goods. The Dnieper and Volga Rivers became productive trade routes. Major rivers ran from north to south, linking the Russians early on to the advanced Byzantine world Using the reading as a guide, which river do you think this is?

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During Roman times, the Slavs expanded into southern Russia. Like the Germanic peoples who pushed into Western Europe, the Slavs had a simple political organization and were organized into clans. They lived in small villages, farmed, and traded along the rivers that ran between the Baltic and the Black Sea. Ancient Slavic Warriors Slavic warriors were proficient mounted and infantry warriors

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In the 700s and 800s, the Vikings steered their long ships out of Scandinavia. These expert sailors were as much at home on Russian rivers as on the stormy Atlantic.

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A Viking ship, pictured in an Anglo-Saxon history book. Though not very accurate, the picture shows the ship's wooden planks and 'dragon-head'.

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The Vikings worked their way south along the rivers, trading with and collecting tribute from the Slavs. They also conducted a thriving trade with Constantinople.

SLAVS and the VIKINGS MEET:

SLAVS and the VIKINGS MEET

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Located at the heart of this vital trade network was the city of Kiev. In time, it would become the center of the first Russian state. Within a few generations, the Vikings who had settled among the Slavs were absorbed into the local culture.

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Early on, trade brought Kiev into the Byzantine orbit. Constantinople later sent Christian missionaries to convert the Slavs .

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About 863, two Greek monks, Cyril and Methodius, adapted the Greek alphabet so they could translate the Bible into Slavic languages.

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This Cyrillic alphabet became the written script used in Russia and Ukraine to the present.

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In 957, Princess Olga of Kiev converted to Byzantine Christianity. But it was not until the reign of her grandson Vladimir that the new religion spread widely.

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After his own conversion, Vladimir married the sister of a Byzantine emperor. Soon Greek priests arrived in Kiev to preside over the mass baptisms organized by the prince.

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As Byzantine Christianity gained strength in Russia, princes began to see themselves as heirs to many cultural and political aspects of the Byzantine Empire. The Russians acquired a written language, and a class of educated Russian priests emerged.

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Russians adapted Byzantine religious art, music, and architecture. Byzantine domes capped with colorful, carved “helmets” became the onion domes of Russian churches.

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Byzantine Christianity set the pattern for close ties between the Church and state. Russian rulers, like the Byzantine emperor, eventually controlled the Church, making it dependent on them, for support. The Russian Orthodox Church would long remain a pillar of state power.

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Kiev enjoyed a Golden Age under Yaroslav the Wise, who ruled from 1019-1054. Like Justinian, he issued a written law code to improve justice. A scholar, he translated Greek works into his language. Yaroslav arranged marriages between his children and some of the royal families of Western Europe. Yaroslav also built the first library in Kiev. Under his rule, Christianity prospered. By the 12th century, Kiev was home to some 400 churches.

Russia today has this stamp remembering Yaroslav’s importance in its’ history. Why do you think he is remembered so well?:

Russia today has this stamp remembering Yaroslav’s importance in its’ history. Why do you think he is remembered so well?

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Kiev declined in the 1100s as rival families battled for the throne. Also, Russian trading cities were hurt because Byzantine prosperity faded. As Russian princes squabbled among themselves, Mongol invaders from central Asia struck the final blow.

Kiev’s Decline:

Kiev’s Decline In the middle 1200s, a ferocious group of horsemen from central Asia slashed their way into Russia. These nomads were the Mongols. They had exploded onto the world scene at the beginning of the 1200s under Genghis Khan, one of the most feared warriors of all time.

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The capital is now moved from Kiev to MOSCOW The Mongols tolerated all religions and allowed Russians to follow their usual customs, but demanded obedience & a large taxes from all regions of Russia.

Mongol Influence in Russia:

Mongol Influence in Russia Isolated Russia more from Western Europe Caused Russia to develop differently from the rest of Europe because they were cut off from their ideas and inventions Encouraged the rise of Moscow as a center of power Encouraged the guidance and control of the Byzantine Church

The Russian Empire:

The Russian Empire After the Mongols occupied Russia for about 200 years, the Russians finally broke free Ivan III Openly challenged Mongol rule Took the title of “czar” – Russian version of Caesar – and claimed his intent to make Russia the “Third Rome”

Using the timeline above as a guide, what event in Russian history do you think has had the longest impact on its’ development? Why?:

Using the timeline above as a guide, what event in Russian history do you think has had the longest impact on its’ development? Why?

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