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Patterson, PharmD, BCPS Adjunct Professor Rockhurst University School of Occupational and Physical Therapy Drug Dosage Forms1 Minute Review: 1 Minute Review Drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted by the human body Various drug and patient factors can affect metabolism and excretion The liver is the primary site of action for metabolism The kidney is the primary site of action for excretionDrug Dosage Forms: Drug Dosage Forms The extent and rate to which a medication is absorbed and distributed can be affected by the drug delivery (dosage) form The chemical structure of a medication will determine its available dosage forms Drugs may be available in multiple dosage forms—choosing a form that is best received by the patient will lead to a better total outcomeDrug Dosage Forms: Drug Dosage FormsParenteral Administration: Parenteral Administration Drugs given intravenously Bypass absorption More accurate More predictable Quicker onset of action Emergency situations Difficult for self-administration Many biologic agentsOral Administration: Oral Administration Many dosage forms Type may affect absorption and distribution Oral drugs must break-down in gut and form a solution Absorption into gut through passive diffusion Dissolution a limiting factor Affected by numerous factors Gastric secretions pH Gastric-emptying time Intestinal transitTypes of Oral Administration: Types of Oral Administration Solutions Suspensions Capsules Tablets Oral tablets Disintegrating SublingualTypes of Drug Dosage Forms: Types of Drug Dosage FormsOral Solutions: Oral Solutions Drug dissolved in water Liquid preparations Syrup, elixirs Advantages Homogenous Easier to swallow than drugs in solid form Disadvantages Bulkier Degrade more rapidlyOral Suspensions: Oral Suspensions Solids suspended in liquid Use of levigating agent Sustaining effect Drug dissolution prior to absorption Stability Advantages Disguise taste Degradation slower than solution Use when suitable solvents are unavailable Disadvantages Uneven concentration SettlingDermatologic Preparations: Dermatologic Preparations Administration on or through the skin Dermatologic conditions Conditions in which oral or parenteral administration is impractible Skin irritation or abrasions may affect absorptionEmulsions: Emulsions Two-phase systems Water-in-oil (w/o) Oil-in-water (o/w) Advantages Increased drug solubility Increased stability Disadvantages Concentration limited Requires emulsifying agentOintments: Ointments Semisolid preparations Advantages Emollient properties Protective barriers Disadvantages Messy OcclusiveSuppositories: Suppositories Solid or semi-solid mass intended to be inserted into a body orifice Rectum Vagina Urethra Advantages Local effects (vagina, urethra) System effects (rectal) Disadvantages Unacceptable dosage form to many patientsPowders: Powders A mixture of finely divided drugs in dry form May be for oral or dermatologic use Advantages Flexibility of compounding Good stability Rapid dispersion (small particle size) Disadvantages Time-consuming preparation Inaccuracy of dose Unsuitable for many drugsAerosol Products: Aerosol Products Pressurized dosage forms Deliver drug systemically or topically Liquefied/propelled gas Metered-Dose Inhalers (MDIs) Drug inhaled as fine mist of drug-containing particles Metering valvesCapsules: Capsules Solid dosage forms Enclosed in gelatin shell Hard or soft Advantages Easier to swallow than tablets Encapsulation of drugs in powder form Disadvantages Storage issues SizeTablets: Tablets Most commonly used solid dosage form Advantages Precision of unit dose Low cost Easy to swallow Most stable of all oral dosage forms Disadvantages Over-compression possibleTablet Design & Formulation: Tablet Design and Formulation Tablets for oral ingestion Compressed tablets Layered tablets Repeat-action tablets Delayed-action Enteric-coated Film-coated ChewableTablet Design & Formulation: Tablet Design and Formulation Tablets for oral cavity Buccal Sublingual Lozenges Tablets used to prepare solutions EffervescentControlled-Release Dosage Forms: Controlled-Release Dosage Forms Delayed-release, sustained action, and/or time-released Release drug slowly to provide prolonged action to the body Advantages Use of less total drug Longer dosing interval Less fluctuation in drug level Disadvantages More difficult to make Can’t be crushed or chewedRoutes of Drug Administration: Routes of Drug AdministrationDrug Action & Formulation: Drug Action and Formulation Local activity Dosage form minimizes systemic absorption Concentration at application site affects activity Systemic absorption Bioavailability Amount of drug in dosage form determines extent of absorption and systemic drug concentratoinParenteral Administration: Parenteral Administration IV bolus injection Acts rapidly Intra-arterial injection Specific artery Intravenous infusion Constant input rate Relatively constant plasma drug concentration Intramuscular infusion Injected into skeletal muscle Subcutaneous Injected beneath the skinEnteral Administration: Enteral Administration Buccal and sublingual administration Absorbed across the epithelial lining of mouth Absorbed directly into systemic circulation Oral administration Absorption through GI tract Most convenient route Rectal administration Placed in rectum and absorbed through mucosal surfaceRespiratory Tract Administration: Respiratory Tract Administration Intranasal administration Local or systemic effects Pulmonary inhalation Inhaled perorally into pulmonary tract Deposited in trachea, bronchioles, and exhaledMiscellaneous Administration: Miscellaneous Administration Transdermal and topical administration Drugs absorption through skin Ophthalmic Few vehicles appropriate Otic Topical effects Vaginal Topical and small systemic effectsQuestions?: Questions? Next Week: Midterm Exam 50 points Multiple choice and short answer Contact me: firstname.lastname@example.org if you have any questions You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.