waste management

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By: mairrabastta (99 month(s) ago)

very nice man....bravo you have done well....its full of knowledge....thanx

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Waste Management : 

1 Waste Management

What are Wastes? : 

3 What are Wastes? Definition of Wastes “substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of the law” Disposal means “any operation which may lead to resource recovery, recycling, reclamation, direct re-use or alternative uses.”

Kinds of Wastes : 

4 Kinds of Wastes Solid waste- vegetable waste, kitchen waste, household waste etc. E-waste- discarded electronic devices like computer, TV, music systems etc. Liquid waste- water used for different industries eg tanneries, distillaries, thermal power plants Plastic waste- plastic bags, bottles, buckets etc. Metal waste- unused metal sheet, metal scraps etc. Nuclear waste- unused materials from nuclear power plants

Classification of Wastes according to their Properties : 

5 Classification of Wastes according to their Properties Bio-degradable can be degraded (paper, wood, fruits and others) Non-biodegradable cannot be degraded (plastics, bottles, old machines, cans, styrofoam containers and others)

Classification of Wastes according totheir Effects on Human Health and the Environment : 

6 Classification of Wastes according totheir Effects on Human Health and the Environment Hazardous wastes Substances unsafe to use commercially, industrially, agriculturally, or economically that are shipped, transported to or brought from the country of origin for dumping or disposal. Non-hazardous Substances safe to use commercially, industrially, agriculturally, or economically that are shipped, transported to or brought from the country of origin for dumping or disposal.

Slide 7: 

What Is Integrated Waste Management? 7

Slide 8: 

8

Integrated Waste Management : 

Integrated Waste Management The IWM demonstrates that collection and sorting are at the centre of any successful waste management system 9

Integrated Waste Management : 

Integrated Waste Management Waste managers need to create sustainable systems that are: Economically affordable Socially acceptable and Environmentally effective. 10

Slide 11: 

11

Sources of Wastes : 

12 Sources of Wastes Households Business and Industry

Sources of Wastes : 

13 Sources of Wastes Agriculture Hotels

Effects of Waste if Not Managed Properly : 

14 Effects of Waste if Not Managed Properly Affects our health Affects our socio-economic conditions Affects our coastal and marine environment Affects our climate

Waste minimization : 

Waste minimization Significant reduction of the waste generated in health-care establishments and research facilities may be encouraged by the implementation of certain policies and practices, including the following: 15

Waste minimization : 

Source reduction: measures such as purchasing restrictions to ensure the selection of methods or supplies that are less wasteful or generate less hazardous waste. Recyclable products: use of materials that may be recycled, either on-site or off-site. 16 Waste minimization

Waste minimization : 

Good management and control practices: apply particularly to the purchase and use of chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Waste segregation: careful separation of waste matter into different categories helps to minimize the quantities of hazardous waste. 17 Waste minimization

What is hazardous waste? : 

What is hazardous waste? 18

Hazardous Waste : 

Hazardous Waste A hazardous waste is waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment. There are four factors that determine whether or not a substance is hazardous: 19

Slide 20: 

20

Sources of Hazardous Waste : 

21 Sources of Hazardous Waste Sources of hazardous wastes include: Research and academic laboratories Shops and repair facilities Art and theater departments Facility maintenance and grounds Power Plant operations Experimental Farm operations

Characteristics : 

Characteristics Hazardous Wastes are defined as wastes that exhibit the following characteristics: Ignitability Corrosivity Reactivity Toxicity. 22

So… is your waste a hazardous waste? : 

So… is your waste a hazardous waste? 23

Universal Hazardous Wastes : 

24 Universal Hazardous Wastes Universal wastes include the following materials that are commonly found in the workplace Batteries Fluorescent lamps Pesticides Thermometers (containing mercury) Used oil

Recycling and Reuse : 

Recycling and Reuse 25

Recycling & Reuse : 

Recycling & Reuse The steps involved in the process prior to recycling include Collection of waste from doorsteps, commercial places, etc. Collection of waste from community dumps. Collection/picking up of waste from final disposal sites 26

Recycling of Wastes : 

Recycling of Wastes 27

Recycle : 

Recycle 1.It reduces waste materials. 2.It decreases the cost of waste disposal by reducing the volume of material to be collected, transported and dumped. 3.It reduces the requirement for landfill sites. 4. It maximized the value of natural resources.

Recycle Contd. : 

Recycle Contd. 5. It often produces materials with a lower energy cost than the original product. Example : recycling aluminum requires only 5 per cent of the amount required to extract aluminum from natural sources. 6. It often produces materials with a reduced amount of air pollution compared with the original production of that material. 7. Some recycled products have a cash value.

Slide 30: 

Recycling: Processing of a waste item into usable forms. Benefits of recycling: -Reduce environmental degradation -Making money out of waste -Save energy that would have gone into waste handling & product manufacture Saving through recycling: -When Al is resmelted- considerable saving in cost -Making paper from waste saves 50% energy -Every tonne of recycled glass saves energy equivalent to 100 litres of oil

Recycling not a solution to all problems! : 

Recycling not a solution to all problems! Recycling is not a solution to managing every kind of waste material For many items recycling technologies are unavailable or unsafe In some cases, cost of recycling is too high.

What Should be Done : 

32 What Should be Done Reduce Waste - Reduce office paper waste by implementing a formal policy to duplex all draft reports and by making training manuals and personnel information available electronically. - Improve product design to use less materials. - Redesign packaging to eliminate excess material while maintaining strength. - Work with customers to design and implement a packaging return program. - Switch to reusable transport containers. - Purchase products in bulk.

Slide 33: 

33 Reuse - Reuse corrugated moving boxes internally. - Reuse office furniture and supplies, such as interoffice envelopes, file folders, and paper. - Use durable towels, tablecloths, napkins, dishes, cups, and glasses. - Use incoming packaging materials for outgoing shipments. - Encourage employees to reuse office materials rather than purchase new ones. What Should be Done

What Should be Done : 

34 What Should be Done Employee Education - Develop an “office recycling procedures” packet. - Send out recycling reminders to all employees including environmental articles. - Train employees on recycling practices prior to implementing recycling programs. - Conduct an ongoing training process as new technologies are introduced and new employees join the institution.

What Should be Done? : 

35 What Should be Done? Preventing Waste - packaging waste reductions and changes in the manufacturing process - use biodegradable materials

Who should do it? : 

36 Who should do it? All institutions like colleges, hostels, hotels, hospitals, clubs, marriage-halls, jails, zoos. Apartment-complexes, bungalows, Govt and city offices. All city-owned parks and sites. Many individuals enjoy doing it voluntarily.

Where it should be done : 

37 Where it should be done In garden strips along apartment walls, on terraces or in flower-pots or window-boxes   In local parks, traffic islands, road dividers In conventional large street-bins   In sewage-farm premises   On temple lands or private farms

Wastes: containers and storage : 

38 Wastes: containers and storage Only use containers that are compatible with the materials to be collected. Always label containers with a description of their contents. Don’t store incompatible materials together. Do not store wastes in the fume hood. Store in the appropriate storage cabinet (e.g., flammable, acid). Provide secondary containment for liquid wastes.

Wastes: containers and storage : 

ALWAYS keep the container closed (lid firmly secured). A funnel in an open bottle is NOT a lid. Check waste storage areas regularly (weekly). Inspect containers to make sure they aren’t getting brittle or starting to crack. If you need waste containers, contact EHS&RM or your Chemical Hygiene Officer to inquire about availability. 39 Wastes: containers and storage

Slide 40: 

Waste Disposal Methods Advantages & Disadvantages 40

Ocean Dumping : 

Ocean Dumping 41 Advantages: convenient inexpensive source of nutrients, shelter and breeding Disadvantages: ocean overburdened distruction of food sources killing of plankton desalination

Sanitary Landfill : 

Sanitary Landfill Advantages: volume can increase with little addition of people/equipment filled land can be reused for other community purposes Disadvantages: completed landfill areas can settle and requires maintenance requires proper planning, design, and operation 42

Open Dumping : 

Open Dumping Advantages: inexpensive Disadvantages: health-hazard - insects, rodents etc. damage due to air pollution ground water and run-off pollution 43

INCINERATION : 

INCINERATION Advantages: requires minimum land can be operated in any weather produces stable odor-free residue refuse volume is reduced by half Disadvantages: expensive to build and operate high energy requirement requires skilled personnel and continuous maintenance unsightly - smell, waste, vermin 44

Recycle : 

Recycle Advantages: key to providing a liviable environment for the future Disadvantages: expensive some wastes cannot be recycled technological push needed separation of useful material from waste difficult. 45

What Should be Done? : 

46 What Should be Done?

What Should be Done? : 

47 What Should be Done?

Presented By:MHM-Final : 

Presented By:MHM-Final THANKS 48

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